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The mesolimbic dopamine system, which arises in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), is an important neural substrate for opiate reinforcement and addiction. Chronic exposure to opiates is known to produce biochemical adaptations in this brain region. We now show that these adaptations are associated with structural changes in VTA dopamine neurons. Individual(More)
Quantitative blot immunolabeling techniques were used to determine the concentrations of ERK1 (M(r) 44 kDa) and ERK2 (M(r) 42 kDa), the two major extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases, in different regions of rat brain. The aggregate ERK concentrations (ERK1 and ERK2) were relatively high in each of the brain regions studied, ranging from(More)
We report a previously undescribed bacterial behavior termed electrokinesis. This behavior was initially observed as a dramatic increase in cell swimming speed during reduction of solid MnO(2) particles by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. The same behavioral response was observed when cells were exposed to small(More)
Previous work has shown that the inbred Lewis and Fischer 344 rat strains differ in several behavioral measures related to mesolimbic dopamine function. Moreover, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the Lewis rat has been shown to contain higher levels of tyrosine hydroxylase compared to that of the Fischer rat by blot immunolabeling procedures. To(More)
Empirical use of beta-lactam antibiotics, the preferred agents for treating uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections, may no longer be appropriate for these infections because of the increasing prevalence of community strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Retrospective studies, however, suggest that outcomes are good even when(More)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulates renal water excretion by altering the permeability of the collecting duct to water. ADH-responsive epithelial cells are the major cell type lining kidney tubules in the inner medulla and papilla. ADH modulates apical membrane water permeability by the insertion and removal of vesicles containing aquaporin collecting duct(More)
Immunohistochemical techniques were used to evaluate the laminar distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive axons in area 9 of infant and adult rhesus monkey prefrontal cortex. In neonatal animals, TH-positive axons had a bilaminar location in the superficial and deep cortical layers, whereas in the adults, labeled fibers were more evenly(More)
Chylomicrons prevent endotoxin toxicity and increase endotoxin uptake by hepatocytes. As a consequence, less endotoxin is available to activate macrophages, thereby reducing tumor necrosis factor secretion. To determine whether the chylomicron-mediated increase in hepatocellular uptake of endotoxin results in increased endotoxin excretion into bile, we(More)
Vasopressin or AVP regulates water reabsorption by the kidney inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) through the insertion and removal of aquaporin (AQP) 2 water channels into the IMCD apical membrane. AVP-elicited trafficking of AQP2 with the apical membrane occurs via a specialized population of vesicles that resemble synaptic vesicles in neurons. AQP2(More)