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Nucleus HVc of the songbird is a distinct forebrain region that is essential for song production and shows selective responses to complex auditory stimuli. Two neuronal populations within HVc give rise to its efferent projections. One projection, to the robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA), serves as the primary motor pathway for song production, and(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to report early and intermediate outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for choledochal cysts with 400 cases. PATIENTS AND METHODS The operation was performed using four ports. The cystic duct was identified and divided. The liver was suspended by two stay-sutures: one on the round ligament and the other on the distal cystic(More)
Glutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate CNS. Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory actions whereas metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) mediate a variety of slower effects. For example, mGluRs can mediate presynaptic inhibition, postsynaptic excitation, or, more rarely, postsynaptic inhibition. We(More)
A series of quaternary salt derivatives of 2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-1-methylimidazole incorporating various side chains bearing ether, silyl, nitrile, ester, halogen, nitro, sulfone, amino, or aminosulfonyl substituents was prepared and evaluated in vivo for the treatment of anticholinesterase intoxication. Test results in the mouse revealed that the type(More)
Stimulation of glutamate binding by the dipeptide L-phenylalanyl-L-glutamate (Phe-Glu) was inhibited by the peptidase inhibitor bestatin, suggesting that the stimulation was caused by glutamate liberated from the dipeptide and not by the dipeptide itself. It further suggests that this form of glutamate binding should be reinterpreted as glutamate(More)
An apparently single rotavirus A strain possessing a genotype constellation of G8-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 abruptly emerged, caused diarrhoea in children requiring hospitalisation, and increased to reach 27 % of strains detected during the first half of 2015 in Vietnam.
AIM The aim of this study was to compare the safety of laparoscopic operation with open surgery for choledochal cyst in children. METHODS Early outcomes of open surgery from January 2001 to December 2006 were compared with early outcomes of laparoscopic operations from January 2007 to July 2010. The main outcome variables included intra- and early(More)
The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist ACPD exerts an unusual inhibitory effect on a population of neurons of the song-control nucleus HVc of the zebra finch via activation of the GIRK channel. We report in the present study the pharmacology of this response. ACPD directly hyperpolarized the neurons by a mechanism independent of GABA(B)(More)
Noroviruses, an important cause of diarrhoea in humans, are genetically diverse. The recent norovirus seasons recorded the emergence of new recombinants of the capsid and polymerase genotypes, with a global dominance of GII.Pe_GII.4 Sydney 2012 and GII.P17_GII.17 in Asian countries. However, the number of papers reporting the distribution of both polymerase(More)
Oligonucleotides consisting of only deoxyguanosine and deoxythymidine were stable in culture and were able to significantly inhibit Friend Murine Leukemia Virus (FMLV) production in acute cell culture assay systems. The oligonucleotides did not share homology with, or possess any complementary (antisense) sequence motifs to the FMLV genome. The(More)
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