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Modeling the in vivo microenvironment typically involves placing cells in a three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) in physiologically relevant context with respect to other cells. The mechanical and chemical features of 3D microenvironments play important roles in tissue engineering, tumor growth and metastasis, and in defining stem cell niches,(More)
We consider the equilibrium flotation of a two-dimensional cylinder and a sphere at an interface between two fluids. We give conditions on the density and radius of these objects for them to be able to float at the interface and discuss the role played by the contact angle in determining these conditions. For cylinders with a small radius, we find that the(More)
We study the sinking of a dense cylinder initially supported horizontally at an air-water interface and then released. The sinking motion is studied experimentally and agrees quantitatively with a simple hydrodynamic model of the process. In particular, our model predicts that the time taken for the cylinder to become immersed in the liquid should be tsink(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that HtrA1 (high-temperature requirement A1) is involved in modulating crucial cellular processes and implicated in life-threatening diseases, such as cancer and neuropathological disorders; however, the exact functions of this protease in vivo remain unknown. Here, we show that loss of HtrA1 function increases fibroblast(More)
This paper describes the locomotion of a water jumping robot which emulates the ability of the water strider and the fishing spider to jump on the water surface. While previous studies of the robots mimicking aquatic arthropods were focused on recreating their horizontal skating motions, here we aim to achieve a vertical jumping motion. The robot jumps by(More)
Alterations of the FHIT gene occur as frequent events in several human cancers. Replacement of exogenous wild-type FHIT gene has been shown to induce suppression of tumorigenicity of human FHIT-negative cells in nude mice and aberrant FHIT transcripts have been observed in a variety of human solid tumors. In the presence study, we performed a nested reverse(More)
The capillary burst microvalve offers an attractive means to regulate microliquid flow owing to its simple structure and operation process. However, there existed no rigorous theoretical work to elucidate how the valve works and consequently to predict the valve-bursting condition. Therefore, here we report the theoretical investigation of how the capillary(More)
We examined the formation of a multiply curved meniscus inside rectangular nanochannels, whose width ranges from 50 to 800 nm at a constant height of 200 nm. When the channel width is smaller than approximately 400 nm under partial wetting conditions, a distinct multi-curvature meniscus was observed at the advancing front with an edge disjoined from the(More)
Although ultrasonic technology has been successfully adopted for semiconductor cleaning, a recent trend of extreme miniaturization of patterns calls for a novel process that can remove contaminant particles without damaging nanoscale patterns. Unstable bubble oscillations have been hypothesized to cause such surface damages, and here we show direct(More)
Technologies to harvest electrical energy from wind have vast potentials because wind is one of the cleanest and most sustainable energy sources that nature provides. Here we propose a flutter-driven triboelectric generator that uses contact electrification caused by the self-sustained oscillation of flags. We study the coupled interaction between a(More)