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The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram negative bacteria is a well-known inducer of the innate immune response. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2) form a heterodimer that recognizes a common 'pattern' in structurally diverse LPS molecules. To understand the ligand specificity and receptor activation mechanism of the(More)
TLR2 in association with TLR1 or TLR6 plays an important role in the innate immune response by recognizing microbial lipoproteins and lipopeptides. Here we present the crystal structures of the human TLR1-TLR2-lipopeptide complex and of the mouse TLR2-lipopeptide complex. Binding of the tri-acylated lipopeptide, Pam(3)CSK(4), induced the formation of an "m"(More)
TLR4 and MD-2 form a heterodimer that recognizes LPS (lipopolysaccharide) from Gram-negative bacteria. Eritoran is an analog of LPS that antagonizes its activity by binding to the TLR4-MD-2 complex. We determined the structure of the full-length ectodomain of the mouse TLR4 and MD-2 complex. We also produced a series of hybrids of human TLR4 and hagfish VLR(More)
Angiotensin I-converting enzymes (ACEs) are zinc metallopeptidases that cleave carboxy-terminal dipeptides from short peptide hormones. We have determined the crystal structures of AnCE, a Drosophila homolog of ACE, with and without bound inhibitors to 2.4 A resolution. AnCE contains a large internal channel encompassing the entire protein molecule. This(More)
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are generally dormant or slowly cycling tumor cells that have the ability to reconstitute tumors. They are thought to be involved in tumor resistance to chemo/radiation therapy and tumor relapse and progression. However, neither their existence nor their identity within many cancers has been well defined. Here, we have demonstrated(More)
The proteasomal ATPase ring, comprising Rpt1-Rpt6, associates with the heptameric α-ring of the proteasome core particle (CP) in the mature proteasome, with the Rpt carboxy-terminal tails inserting into pockets of the α-ring. Rpt ring assembly is mediated by four chaperones, each binding a distinct Rpt subunit. Here we report that the base subassembly of(More)
During intracellular membrane trafficking, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) and alpha-soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP) disassemble the soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex for recycling of the SNARE proteins. The molecular mechanism by which NSF disassembles the SNARE complex is largely unknown. Using single-molecule(More)
Focal cortical dysplasia type II (FCDII) is a sporadic developmental malformation of the cerebral cortex characterized by dysmorphic neurons, dyslamination and medically refractory epilepsy. It has been hypothesized that FCD is caused by somatic mutations in affected regions. Here, we used deep whole-exome sequencing (read depth, 412-668×) validated by(More)
Variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) are recently discovered leucine-rich repeat (LRR) family proteins that mediate adaptive immune responses in jawless fish. Phylogenetically it is the oldest adaptive immune receptor and the first one with a non-immunoglobulin fold. We present the crystal structures of one VLR-A and two VLR-B clones from the inshore(More)
Targeted genome-editing technology using designed nucleases has been evolving rapidly, and its applications are widely expanding in research, medicine and biotechnology. Using this genome-modifying technology, researchers can precisely and efficiently insert, remove or change specific sequences in various cultured cells, micro-organisms, animals and plants.(More)