High density 3D LSI technology using W/Cu hybrid through silicon vias (TSVs) has been proposed. Major reliability issues attributed to W/Cu hybrid TSVs in high density 3D LSIs such as (i) thermo-mechanical stress exerted by W TSVs used for signal lines and Cu TSVs used for power/ground lines in active Si, (ii) external gettering (EG) role played by… (More)
This paper studies the human arm's sensory-motor control mechanism in reaching movements. First, we formulate both the kinematics and dynamics of a two-link planar arm *To whom all correspondence should be addressed.
BACKGROUND Gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has gradually come to be recommended as the optimal treatment for early gastric cancer; however, one of the primary issues is postoperative bleeding. Although second-look endoscopy is conventionally performed to reduce the risk of postoperative bleeding, its benefit has not yet been clearly… (More)