Hitoshi Kawano

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Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1, -2, and -3) mediate the accumulation of transmitter glutamate into synaptic vesicles in glutamatergic neurons. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are more reliable glutamatergic neuron markers, since VGLUT3 also exists in other neuron types. To study whether the dopaminergic neuron uses glutamate as a cotransmitter, we analyzed(More)
Formation of highly organized neocortical structure depends on the production and correct placement of the appropriate number and types of neurons. POU homeodomain proteins Brn-1 and Brn-2 are coexpressed in the developing neocortex, both in the late precursor cells and in the migrating neurons. Here we show that double disruption of both Brn-1 and Brn-2(More)
Pax-6, a transcription regulatory factor, has been demonstrated to play important roles in eye, nose, and brain development by analyzing mice, rats, and humans with a Pax-6 gene mutation. We examined the role of Pax-6 with special attention to the formation of efferent and afferent pathways of the cerebral cortex by using the rat Small eye (rSey2), which(More)
Possible pathways from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) relaying in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) were investigated in rats using combined anterograde and retrograde tracing with immunohistochemistry. After injection of wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase-colloidal gold complex into the SCN, many neurons were retrogradely(More)
Ontogenetic appearances of glucagon, insulin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were immunohistochemically investigated on developing pancreatic islets of rats. Glucagon immunoreactivity appeared first in some epithelial cells (g-cells) of the dorsal anlage of the pancreas on day 11.5 of gestation. On day 12.5, g-cells increased in number manufacturing the(More)
Traumatic damage to the central nervous system (CNS) destroys the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and provokes the invasion of hematogenous cells into the neural tissue. Invading leukocytes, macrophages and lymphocytes secrete various cytokines that induce an inflammatory reaction in the injured CNS and result in local neural degeneration, formation of a cystic(More)
Dermatan sulfate (DS) is synthesized from chondroitin sulfate (CS) by epimerization of glucuronic acid of CS to yield iduronic acid. In the present study, the role of CS and DS was examined in mice that received transection of nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway followed by injection of glycosaminoglycan degrading enzymes into the lesion site. Two weeks(More)
The relationship between nitric oxide synthase (NOS)- and galanin-immunoreactive nerve terminals and the origin of NOS-immunoreactive nerve terminals on the motor endplates in the striated muscles of the rat esophagus was investigated. Double immunohistochemical staining revealed a dual innervation of motor endplates by calcitonin gene-related peptide(More)
The neocortex and the hippocampus comprise several specific layers containing distinct neurons that originate from progenitors at specific development times, under the control of an adequate cell-division patterning mechanism. Although many molecules are known to regulate this cell-division patterning process, its details are not well understood. Here, we(More)
After central nervous system (CNS) injury, meningeal fibroblasts migrate in the lesion center to form a fibrotic scar which is surrounded by end feet of reactive astrocytes. The fibrotic scar expresses various axonal growth-inhibitory molecules and creates a major impediment for axonal regeneration. We developed an in vitro model of the scar using coculture(More)