Hitoshi Kawada

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BACKGROUND Resistance of Aedes aegypti to photostable pyrethroid insecticides is a major problem for disease-vector control programs. Pyrethroids target the voltage-gated sodium channel on the insects' neurons. Single amino acid substitutions in this channel associated with pyrethroid resistance are one of the main factors that cause knockdown resistance in(More)
Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. are the most important species for malaria transmission. Pyrethroid resistance of these vector mosquitoes is one of the main obstacles against effective vector control. The objective of the present study was to monitor the pyrethroid susceptibility in the 3 major malaria vectors in a(More)
BACKGROUND Single amino acid substitutions in the voltage-gated sodium channel associated with pyrethroid resistance constitute one of the main causative factors of knockdown resistance in insects. The kdr gene has been observed in several mosquito species; however, point mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti populations in Myanmar have not been fully(More)
The role of Anopheles funestus group in malaria transmission was investigated in Bagamoyo coastal Tanzania, in the process of characterizing the area as a malaria vaccine testing site. Mosquitoes were sampled inside houses and multiplex PCR was used to identify 649 specimens. The following species were found: A. funestus s.s. (84.3%), A. leesoni (13.6%), A.(More)
Spatial repellency of a new multilayer paper strip impregnated with metofluthrin, a newly synthesized pyrethroid, was evaluated in the laboratory and in the field at Kerandangan, Lombok Island, Indonesia, with the use of cow- and human-baited double nets. Spatial repellency was observed in both cow- and human-baited collections. Metofluthrin treatment(More)
Relationships between the ommatidial structure and photoperiodic behavior of several mosquito species were investigated. Host-seeking behavioral patterns of mosquitoes were classified into four main groups based on previously compiled reports on field or laboratory biting activity. These groups were pattern I and I' (nocturnal), pattern II (crepuscular and(More)
In Kenya, insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) distributed to pregnant women and children under 5 years old through various programs have resulted in a significant reduction in malaria deaths. All of the World Health Organization-recommended insecticides for mosquito nets are pyrethroids, and vector mosquito resistance to these insecticides is one of(More)
Monitoring antimalarial drug resistance is a useful epidemiologic tool and provides early detection of resistance foci. Using DNA extracted from the head/thorax of wild mosquitoes collected from Bagamoyo Coastal Tanzania, samples infected by Plasmodium falciparum (N = 89, in 2002 and N = 249 in 2004) were screened by nested polymerase chain reaction(More)
Field trials on the spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strips for mosquitoes present in shelters without walls (beruga) were carried out in Lombok, Indonesia. A major reduction in the incidence of human biting by Culex quinquefasciatus was achieved, and the use of two strips per beruga repelled >60% of the mosquitoes for at least 11 wk(More)
Trials of metofluthrin-impregnated multilayer paper strips against mosquitoes in shelters with no walls were carried out at 3 sites in Lombok, Indonesia. Major reductions in human biting by Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles balabacensis, and An. sundaicus were achieved. The device is a very practical measure of preventing outdoor mosquito biting, with no(More)