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Relationships between the ommatidial structure and photoperiodic behavior of several mosquito species were investigated. Host-seeking behavioral patterns of mosquitoes were classified into four main groups based on previously compiled reports on field or laboratory biting activity. These groups were pattern I and I' (nocturnal), pattern II (crepuscular and(More)
Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. are the most important species for malaria transmission. Pyrethroid resistance of these vector mosquitoes is one of the main obstacles against effective vector control. The objective of the present study was to monitor the pyrethroid susceptibility in the 3 major malaria vectors in a(More)
BACKGROUND Resistance of Aedes aegypti to photostable pyrethroid insecticides is a major problem for disease-vector control programs. Pyrethroids target the voltage-gated sodium channel on the insects' neurons. Single amino acid substitutions in this channel associated with pyrethroid resistance are one of the main factors that cause knockdown resistance in(More)
BACKGROUND Although insecticide-treated bed nets are effective tools, use often does not follow ownership. House structure and space arrangements may make the attempt to use bed nets difficult, especially for school age children. The objectives of this study were to explore whether an individual's sleeping arrangements and house structure affect bed net use(More)
In Kenya, insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) distributed to pregnant women and children under 5 years old through various programs have resulted in a significant reduction in malaria deaths. All of the World Health Organization-recommended insecticides for mosquito nets are pyrethroids, and vector mosquito resistance to these insecticides is one of(More)
Anopheles gambiae, An. arabiensis, and An. funestus are widespread malaria vectors in Africa. Anopheles rivulorum is the next most widespread species in the An. funestus group. The role of An. rivulorum as a malaria vector has not been fully studied, although it has been found to be a minor or opportunistic transmitter of Plasmodium falciparum. Mosquitoes(More)
BACKGROUND Single amino acid substitutions in the voltage-gated sodium channel associated with pyrethroid resistance constitute one of the main causative factors of knockdown resistance in insects. The kdr gene has been observed in several mosquito species; however, point mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti populations in Myanmar have not been fully(More)
An insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen, has been used for the control of a range of pest insects, including mosquitoes. Pyriproxyfen is effective in inhibiting adult emergence and sterilizing adult females. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is an important vector of dengue and chikungunya, and is expanding its distribution throughout(More)
Pyrethroid resistance is envisioned to be a major problem for the vector control program since, at present, there are no suitable chemical substitutes for pyrethroids. Cross-resistance to knockdown agents, which are mainly used in mosquito coils and related products as spatial repellents, is the most serious concern. Since cross-resistance is a global(More)
The dramatic success of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in African countries has been countered by the rapid development of pyrethroid resistance in vector mosquitoes over the past decade. One advantage of the use of pyrethroids in ITNs is their excito-repellency. Use of the excito-repellency of pyrethroids might(More)