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BACKGROUND/AIMS In this study, we examined changes in the concentrations of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy- and deoxy-Hb, respectively) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during the digit span task by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). METHODS The digit span task consists of the digit span forward and backward tasks. The tasks were(More)
OBJECTIVE Hallucinatory experiences in children are often thought to indicate serious psychopathology. However, they have also been reported in normally developing children and in association with temporary psychological reactions to acute stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hallucinatory experiences in a nonclinical(More)
The aim of this study was to assess the construct validity of the Adolescent Resilience Scale which measures the psychological features of resilient individuals. Research involving this scale, the Negative Life Events Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire was conducted with a group of 207 Japanese undergraduate students (104 men and 103 women; M(More)
BACKGROUND In recent years, attention has been turned to maternal mental health in relation to the mother-child relationship accompanying a widening in focus, i.e. taking into account not only the puerperium, but also the stage of pregnancy. This applies to studies that have revealed a connection between depression and maternal attachment in the postpartum(More)
Currently, individuals tend to encounter many unavoidable, painful events and hardships in the process of growth and development. To lead one's life adapting to these social conditions, it is necessary to maintain one's mental health even while experiencing challenging events; in other words, resilience is required. This study of 130 undergraduates focused(More)
AIM Despite the general consensus on the importance of youth mental health, the scarcity of child and adolescent mental health services is prominent all over the world. Child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) postgraduate training can play a pivotal role in increasing access to youth mental health services. In comparison to Europe and North America, however,(More)
To study the mechanism underlying the influence of psychological pressure on task performance, we investigated the relationship between prefrontal activation, autonomic arousal, and performance in an n-back working memory task with 3 load levels (l-, 2-, and 3-back tasks) under evaluative pressure. The tasks were performed by 32 university students with or(More)
School refusal is a phenomenon that first drew attention in Japan around 1960 and it remains one of the major issues in child psychiatry today. Moreover, it is now said that there exists a large group of latent school refusers currently attending school but harboring feelings of school avoidance. To address this issue, a questionnaire survey was conducted(More)
The immediate premotor signals for saccades are created at the level of medium-lead burst neurons (MLBNs). During fixations, MLBNs receive tonic inhibition from omnipause neurons (OPNs), which use glycine as a neurotransmitter. To elucidate the role of this inhibition, we studied discharge patterns of horizontal MLBNs following iontophoretic application of(More)