Hitoshi Hashimoto

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Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a 38-amino acid C-terminally alpha-amidated peptide that was first isolated 20 years ago from an ovine hypothalamic extract on the basis of its ability to stimulate cAMP formation in anterior pituitary cells (Miyata et al., 1989. PACAP belongs to the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been reported to decrease ischemic neuronal damage and increase IL-6 secretion in rats. However, the mechanisms underlying neuroprotection are still to be fully elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the role played by PACAP and IL-6 in mediating neuroprotection after ischemia(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with well-known cytoprotective effects. We have reported earlier that PACAP decreases mortality and the degree of tubular atrophy in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Recently, we have shown that kidney cultures isolated from PACAP deficient mice show increased(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays a crucial role in immunity and inflammation. Our aim was to obtain insight in the role of PACAP in experimental colitis in mice and thus its possible role in inflammatory bowel disease. PACAP-deficient (PACAP-/-) mice and wild-type control mice were challenged by colitis-inducing agent,(More)
There has been much focus recently on the possible functions of apelin, an endogenous ligand for the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor APJ, in cardiovascular and central nervous systems. We report a new function of apelin as a novel angiogenic factor in retinal endothelial cells. The retinal endothelial cell line RF/6A highly expressed both apelin and APJ(More)
The present study was conducted to clarify a role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and PACAP type 1 receptor (PAC1R) in learning and memory function. We demonstrated long-term potentiation (LTP) in vivo in the dentate gyrus of PAC1R exon 2-deficient (PAC1R-/-) mice and heterozygous PACAP-deficient (PACAP+/-) mice using(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptors (PAC1, VPAC) are present in sensory neurons and vascular smooth muscle. PACAP infusion was found to trigger migraine-like headache in humans and we showed its central pro-nociceptive function in several mouse pain models. Nitroglycerol (NTG)-induced pathophysiological changes were(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a widespread neuropeptide with a diverse array of biological functions. Not surprisingly, the lack of endogenous PACAP therefore results in a variety of abnormalities. One of the important effects of PACAP is its neuroprotective and general cytoprotective role. PACAP protects neurons and other(More)
OBJECTIVE Apelin is an endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor, APJ, and participates in multiple physiological processes. To identify the roles of endogenous apelin, we investigated the phenotype of apelin-deficient (apelin-KO) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS Apelin-KO mice showed impaired retinal vascularization and ocular development, which were(More)
Neuropeptides usually exert a long-lived modulatory effect on the small-molecule neurotransmitters with which they colocalize via regulation of the response times of second messenger systems. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) functions as a neuromodulator and neurotransmitter and regulates a variety of physiological processes. PACAP(More)