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Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a 38-amino acid C-terminally alpha-amidated peptide that was first isolated 20 years ago from an ovine hypothalamic extract on the basis of its ability to stimulate cAMP formation in anterior pituitary cells (Miyata et al., 1989. PACAP belongs to the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been reported to decrease ischemic neuronal damage and increase IL-6 secretion in rats. However, the mechanisms underlying neuroprotection are still to be fully elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the role played by PACAP and IL-6 in mediating neuroprotection after ischemia(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with pleiotropic functions. We report here that PACAP-deficient (PACAP-/-) mice showed increased immobility in a forced swimming test, which was reduced by the antidepressant desipramine, to a similar extent as in wild-type mice. The atypical antipsychotic risperidone and the(More)
The present study was conducted to clarify a role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and PACAP type 1 receptor (PAC1R) in learning and memory function. We demonstrated long-term potentiation (LTP) in vivo in the dentate gyrus of PAC1R exon 2-deficient (PAC1R-/-) mice and heterozygous PACAP-deficient (PACAP+/-) mice using(More)
Psychostimulants, including amphetamine, act as antihyperkinetic agents in humans with hyperkinetic disorder such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and are known to be effective in enhancing attention-related processes; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been adequately addressed. Mice lacking the Adcyap1 gene encoding the neuropeptide(More)
We recently showed that prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) in mice causes autism-like behavioral abnormalities, including social interaction deficits, anxiety-like behavior and spatial learning disability, in male offspring. In the present study, we examined the effect of prenatal VPA on cognitive function and whether the effect is improved by chronic(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, or neurotrophic factor. PACAP is widely expressed throughout the brain and exerts its functions through the PACAP-specific receptor (PAC(1)). Recent studies reveal that genetic variants of the PACAP and PAC(1) genes are associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Reduced motivation is an important marker of psychiatric disorders, including depression. We describe the female encounter test, a novel method of evaluating reward-seeking behavior in mice. METHODS The test apparatus consists of three open chambers, formed with partitions that allow the animal to move freely from one chamber to another. A test(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) exerts neurotrophic effects both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate the upregulation of PACAP mRNA expression in cultured rat cortical neurons after excitotoxic glutamate exposure, and the exacerbating effect of the PACAP receptor antagonist, PACAP(6-38), on neuronal viability. PACAP mRNA(More)
We investigate the challenges and limitations that are encountered when studying membrane protein dynamics in vivo by means of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Based on theoretical arguments and computer simulations, we show that, in general, the fluctuating fluorescence has a fractal dimension D(0) >or= 1.5, which is determined by the anomality(More)