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A point prevalence survey of antimicrobial prescribing was performed in 10 Scottish hospitals using the Glasgow Antimicrobial Audit Tool (GAAT). Appropriateness of the intravenous (IV) route was determined by an infectious diseases physician (IDP) and by a computerised algorithm. The IDP also estimated IV agent appropriateness. Each hospital was surveyed on(More)
It has been shown that some antibiotics can modify cytokine production. We have examined the effect of rifampicin on secretion of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated or heat killed staphylococci (Pansorbin) stimulated monocytes. Secretion of IL-1beta and TNF-a were(More)
BACKGROUND Prescribing of antibiotics, often in the empirical setting, frequently falls on training-grade or junior doctors, who are often the least experienced in this. Indeed, improving the knowledge base of training-grade doctors or senior medical students through education has been identified as one of the key measures to improve antibiotic prescribing(More)
The concentrations of rifampicin in epithelial lining fluid (ELF), human alveolar macrophages (AM), bronchial mucosal biopsies and serum were measured after a single oral dose of 600 mg rifampicin from 15 patients undergoing fibre-optic bronchoscopy. The samples of ELF, AM, the bronchial mucosal biopsies and serum were obtained approximately 2-5 h after(More)
Penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates have become increasingly prevalent worldwide. They are well-known agents of community-acquired infections such as otitis media, pneumonia and bacterial meningitis. Therapy of pneumococcal infections is made difficult by the emergence and spread of bacterial resistance to penicillin and other(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile is the most common infectious cause of colitis and has been increasingly diagnosed in hospitalized patients. The number of prescriptions for proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has also increased significantly over time. Few studies have reported an association between C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) and PPI use. AIM To(More)
OBJECTIVES Linezolid, the first available agent in the new class of oxazolidinone antibiotics, represents a significant advance in the management options available for combating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. In the UK it was launched for clinical use in 2001. The aim of this study was to audit the clinical use of linezolid(More)
A nationwide questionnaire-based survey was performed to define the different practices in managing febrile neutropenia in oncology units and the use of antimicrobial chemotherapy prophylaxis. A 69.7% response rate was obtained from a total of 165 units. Fifty percent of the responding oncologists used combination therapy with piperacillin/tazobactam plus(More)
We performed a nationwide survey to define the different practices in managing febrile neutropenia in haematology units. A questionnaire was sent out to a named haematologist in each of 220 haematology units in the UK. Questions were asked regarding antibiotics of choice in managing febrile neutropenia and the use of antibiotic prophylaxis. Responses were(More)
There is a clinical need for new treatment options as a result of continued increase in the expression of resistance among bacterial pathogens. A number of compounds currently in development show promise. However, in some cases, there is concern that resistance may develop quickly to new compounds that are based on existing antimicrobial agents. Therefore,(More)