Hisayuki Funahashi

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Activation of melanocortin-4-receptors (MC4Rs) reduces body fat stores by decreasing food intake and increasing energy expenditure. MC4Rs are expressed in multiple CNS sites, any number of which could mediate these effects. To identify the functionally relevant sites of MC4R expression, we generated a loxP-modified, null Mc4r allele (loxTB Mc4r) that can be(More)
Orexins (orexin A and B) are recently identified neuropeptides implicated in the regulation of vigilance states and energy homeostasis. We have shown here the physiological significance of histaminergic neurons in the orexin-induced arousal responses. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic techniques revealed direct synaptic interaction between(More)
Orexin-A and -B (hypocretin-1 and -2) have been implicated in the stimulation of feeding. Here we show the effector neurons and signaling mechanisms for the orexigenic action of orexins in rats. Immunohistochemical methods showed that orexin axon terminals contact with neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-positive neurons in the arcuate(More)
The hypothalamus regulates energy intake by integrating the degree of starvation or satiation with the status of the environment through a variety of neuronal and blood-derived signals. Ghrelin, a peptide produced in the stomach and hypothalamus, stimulates feeding and GH secretion. Centrally administered ghrelin exerts an orexigenic activity through the(More)
Ghrelin, a novel peptide isolated from stomach tissue of rats and humans, has been identified as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). In addition to its secretion from the stomach, ghrelin is also expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, intestine, kidney, placenta, and pancreas. GHS-R mRNA, on the other hand, is(More)
Salusins are two newly discovered TOR-related peptides consisting of 28 and 20 amino acids and designated salusin-alpha and salusin-beta, respectively. Using immunohistochemistry techniques, salusin-like immunoreactivity was detected in the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract and immunopositive cells were distributed in the suprachiasmatic, supraoptic(More)
The central melanocortin system regulates body energy homeostasis including the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) receives dense melanocortinergic inputs from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and regulates multiple processes including food intake, reward behaviors, and autonomic function. By using a mouse line in(More)
The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus has been identified as a prime feeding regulating center in the brain. Several feeding regulating peptides, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), are present in neurons of the ARC, which also serves as a primary targeting site for leptin, a feeding inhibiting hormone secreted predominantly(More)
Morphological relationships between neuropeptide Y- (NPY) like and ghrelin-like immunoreactive neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) were examined using light and electron microscopy techniques. At the light microscope level, both neuron types were found distributed in the ARC and could be observed making contact with each other. Using a preembedding double(More)
Chlorella regularis strain YA-603 was previously found to exhibit a comparatively high growth rate and improved 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) productivity when cultured heterotrophically. Although the universal tetrapyrrole precursor ALA is synthesized from glutamate in algae and higher plants, in this study the addition of glutamate to the medium did not(More)