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Repeated administration of nicotine (NCT) and methamphetamine (MAP) produced a progressive enhancement (sensitization) in the increasing effects on spontaneous motor activity in rats. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of NCT and MAP on the extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the nucleus(More)
To examine the effects of drugs on short-term memory in animals, the delayed discrimination experiment in rats and the delayed matching to sample experiment in rhesus monkeys were conducted. Nicotine at 0.125 mg/kg, s.c. in rats and at 0.5 mg/kg, s.c. in monkeys increased the percentages of correct choices. Scopolamine at 0.06-0.12 mg/kg, s.c. in rats and(More)
RATIONALE Central nicotinic receptors have been reported to be involved in the discriminative stimulus (DS) effects of nicotine. OBJECTIVES The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the medial habenular nucleus (mHb) in the DS effects of nicotine. METHODS Substitution tests with nicotine(More)
Nicotine dependence is characterized by weak dependence potential and less ability to produce psychotoxicity and social disturbance. A two-compartment model consisting of "dependence" and "dependence syndrome" was used to clarify clinical features of nicotine dependence. "Dependence" was defined by drug liking. "Dependence syndrome" was defined by a(More)
The involvement of cerebral regions in the discriminative stimulus (DS) effects of nicotine was studied using rats. Substitution tests with nicotine administered into the medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and ventral tegmental area, all of which are located on the mesolimbocortical dopaminergic neurons, and into the dorsal hippocampus and medial(More)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether brain reward function decreases during withdrawal from nicotine and methamphetamine, and whether decreased reward function is related to aversion during withdrawal from these drugs. For that purpose, male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically infused subcutaneously with 9 mg/kg per day nicotine, or(More)
Evoked electromyograms (EMGs) induced by galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth were examined in the muscles of the lower limbs. The labyrinthine-evoked EMGs appeared in the muscles of the femoral and gluteal regions and of the legs, and these muscle activities were changed by the head position in spite of the labyrinthine stimulation being the same. The(More)
Vestibulo-autonomic function was examined as the change of cardiac parameters (HR and SV) to +Gz and -Gx accelerations for 1,000 s in intact and bilaterally labyrinthectomized monkeys. Under anesthetized conditions, HR and SV slightly changed to +2Gz acceleration in both monkeys. In +3Gz acceleration, changes were remarkable and significant. HR increased in(More)