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Filamentous structures are abundant in cells. Relatively rigid filaments, such as microtubules and actin, serve as intracellular scaffolds that support movement and force, and their mechanical properties are crucial to their function in the cell. Some aspects of the behaviour of DNA, meanwhile, depend critically on its flexibility-for example, DNA-binding(More)
The unbinding and rebinding of motor proteins and their substrate filaments are the main components of sliding movement. We have measured the unbinding force between an actin filament and a single motor molecule of muscle, myosin, in the absence of ATP, by pulling the filament with optical tweezers. The unbinding force could be measured repeatedly on the(More)
The postnatal development of thalamic and cortical projections to the medial bank of the lateral suprasylvian area was studied in the cat by using the retrograde and orthograde HRP methods. Both projections are already present at birth. In both newborn kittens and adult cats, the thalamic projections arise from the same nuclei. By far the heaviest thalamic(More)
By coating covalently the surface of a polystyrene bead (diameter = 1 micron) with gelsolin, we have succeeded in attaching the bead selectively at the barbed end of an actin filament and forming a 1:1 bead-actin filament complex. On a layer of heavy meromyosin on a nitrocellulose-coated coverglass, this bead-actin filament complex slid smoothly, trailing(More)
Repeated administration of nicotine (NCT) and methamphetamine (MAP) produced a progressive enhancement (sensitization) in the increasing effects on spontaneous motor activity in rats. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of NCT and MAP on the extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the nucleus(More)
CDC25A, CDC25B and CDC25C belong to a family of protein phosphatases which activate the cyclin-dependent kinase at different points of the cell cycle. According to accumulating evidence, CDC25A and CDC25B seem to possess oncogenic properties. We have analysed these expressions by immunohistochemistry, western blot and RT-PCR in a series of 100 patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, PFTK1 was identified as a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family; however, its expression and clinical significance in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have not been evaluated. METHODS PFTK1 expression was initially examined by expression microarray in 77 ESCC patients. Using independent samples of 223 patients, PFTK1(More)
1. A projection from the medial bank of the lateral suprasylvian visual area, one of the targets of the cerebello-cerebral projection, back to the cerebellar cortex was demonstrated electrophysiologically in the cat. The anatomical pathways underlying this projection were investigated using orthograde and retrograde transport of(More)
To examine the effects of drugs on short-term memory in animals, the delayed discrimination experiment in rats and the delayed matching to sample experiment in rhesus monkeys were conducted. Nicotine at 0.125 mg/kg, s.c. in rats and at 0.5 mg/kg, s.c. in monkeys increased the percentages of correct choices. Scopolamine at 0.06-0.12 mg/kg, s.c. in rats and(More)