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During the assembly of vaccinia virus, the intracellular mature virus becomes enwrapped by a cellular cisterna to form the intracellular enveloped virus (IEV), the precursor of the extracellular enveloped virus (EEV). In this study, we have characterized the origin of this wrapping cisterna by electron microscopic immunocytochemistry using lectins,(More)
Vaccinia virus, once widely used for smallpox vaccine, has recently been engineered and used as an oncolytic virus for cancer virotherapy. Their replication has been restricted to tumors by disrupting viral genes and complementing them with products that are found specifically in tumor cells. Here, we show that microRNA (miRNA) regulation also enables(More)
The posttranscriptional regulator (p27x-III) of human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is located predominantly in the cell nucleolus. A highly basic amino-terminal sequence (NH2-Met-Pro-Lys-Thr-Arg-Arg-Arg-Pro-Arg-Arg-Ser-Gln-Arg-Lys-Arg-Pro-Pro -Thr- Pro) in this protein, when fused to the amino termini of beta-galactosidase and p40x of HTLV-I, acts(More)
We investigated the role of human CRM1 (hCRM1) (exportin 1) in the function of Rex protein encoded by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. hCRM1 promoted the export of Rex protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. A Rex protein with a mutation in the activation domain, RexM90, lost both the ability to bind to hCRM1 and the ability to multimerize. The(More)
Human CRM1 (hCRM1) functions in the Rex-mediated mRNA export of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) as an export receptor and as an inducing factor for Rex multimerization on its cognate RNA. Although there are only 24 amino acid differences between hCRM1 and rat CRM1 (rCRM1), rCRM1 can hardly support Rex activity, suggesting a role for rCRM1 as a(More)
Ebola virus budding is mediated by two proline-rich motifs, PPxY and PTAP, within the viral matrix protein VP40. We have previously shown that a Nedd4-like protein BUL1, but not Nedd4, positively regulates budding of type D retrovirus Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (J. Yasuda, E. Hunter, M. Nakao, and H. Shida, EMBO Rep. 3:636-640, 2002). Here, we report that(More)
A trans-acting regulatory gene product p40tax (Tax) of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is one of the main target antigens recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for HTLV-I. A CTL epitope within the Tax protein was identified in this report. HTLV-I-specific CD8+ CTL lines established from two HTLV-I carriers with HTLV-I-associated(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 encodes a positive trans-activator protein, Tat, which is located predominantly in the cell nucleolus. To study the role of the basic region of Tat in nucleolar localization, we constructed fusion genes encoding serially deleted segments of Tat joined to the amino-terminal end of the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase(More)
In this study, we have identified a novel Nedd4-like ubiquitin ligase, BUL1, as the host factor involved in budding of type D retrovirus Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV). Overexpression of BUL1 enhanced virus particle release, while a BUL1 mutant in which a W to G substitution was introduced into a WW domain, W791G, lost the ability to bind to the viral(More)