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In this paper we summarize and discuss the modern technology and systems, studied and established by our research group, for performing the detection and special analysis incorporated with the super-high sensitivity photon counting method for the study of ultraweak photon emission; for example, extra-weak bioluminescence and chemiluminescence from living(More)
This paper suggests the modeling methods of non-uniform substrate resistivity for substrate resistance extraction. Conventional substrate model of uniform resistivity for each substrate layer can cause about 40-80% resistance extraction errors. Though model of simulated doping profile theoretically provides fine accuracy, the doping profile cannot be(More)
This paper discusses modeling of non-uniform substrate re-sistivity for substrate resistance extraction. Though substrate resistivity of each substrate layer is frequently assumed to be uniform, doping profile of each substrate layer is not uniform. We present the extraction error of substrate resistance under uniform resistivity assumption. The resistivity(More)
By simulating the functions of the animal intestine, the authors have developed a novel tubular bioreactor (TBR) which is capable of containing both the reaction and separation of products in a single system. This reactor consisted of inorganic ultra filtration membrane modules in the primary part of the system, a heat exchanger and a recycling pump. The(More)
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