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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Extracellular survival factors alter a cell's susceptibility to apoptosis, often through posttranslational mechanisms. However, no consistent relationship has been established between such survival signals and the BCL-2 family, where the balance of death agonists versus antagonists determines susceptibility. One distant member, BAD, heterodimerizes with(More)
The "BH3-only" proapoptotic BCL-2 family members initiate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. A small interfering RNA knockdown of BIM confirms this BH3-only member is important for the cytokine-mediated homeostasis of hematopoietic cells. We show here that the phosphorylation status of BIM controls its proapoptotic activity. IL-3, a hematopoietic survival(More)
The Bcl-2 antagonist ABT-737 targets Bcl-2/Bcl-xL but not Mcl-1, which may confer resistance to this novel agent. Here, we show that Mcl-1 down-regulation by the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor roscovitine or Mcl-1-shRNA dramatically increases ABT-737 lethality in human leukemia cells. ABT-737 induces Bax conformational change but fails to activate(More)
Little is known about how growth factors control tissue stem cell survival and proliferation. We analyzed mice with a null mutation of Shp2 (Ptpn11), a key component of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Null embryos die peri-implantation, much earlier than mice that express an Shp2 truncation. Shp2 null blastocysts initially develop normally, but they(More)
We determined one mechanism by which the putative phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK)-1 inhibitor 2-amino-N-{4-[5-(2-phenanthrenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-phenyl}acetamide (OSU-03012) killed primary human glioma and other transformed cells. OSU-03012 caused a dose-dependent induction of cell death that was not altered by p53 mutation,(More)
In this paper, we have identified a new sesquiterpene synthase gene (ZSS2) from Zingiber zerumbet Smith. Functional expression of ZSS2 in Escherichia coli and in vitro enzyme assay showed that the encoded enzyme catalyzed the formation of beta-eudesmol and five additional by-products. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that ZSS2 transcript accumulation(More)
Glucocorticoids (GC) are common components in chemotherapeutic protocols for lymphoid malignancies. GC-induced apoptosis requires the intrinsic, BCL-2 family-regulated pathway. Treatment of CCRF-CEM (T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia) cells with the GC, dexamethasone (Dex), activates p38-mitogen activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) and then induces mRNA(More)
A beta-carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (PtCA1) is encoded by the nuclear genome. This enzyme was previously found to be important for the operation of photosynthesis with a high affinity for dissolved inorganic carbon. A cDNA sequence that encodes PtCA1 (ptca1) was shown to possess a presequence of 138 bp (pre138),(More)
Interactions between MEK1/2 inhibitors and the dual Abl/Src kinase inhibitor dasatinib (BMS-354825) were examined in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines and primary specimens. Cotreatment of K562 or LAMA cells with subtoxic or marginally toxic concentrations of PD184352 (or U0126) and dasatinib synergistically potentiated mitochondrial damage, caspase(More)