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Extracellular survival factors alter a cell's susceptibility to apoptosis, often through posttranslational mechanisms. However, no consistent relationship has been established between such survival signals and the BCL-2 family, where the balance of death agonists versus antagonists determines susceptibility. One distant member, BAD, heterodimerizes with(More)
Production of nitric oxide (NO) by macrophages is important for the killing of intracellular infectious agents. Interferon (IFN)-gamma and lipopolysaccharide stimulate NO production by transcriptionally up-regulating the inducible NO synthase (iNOS). Macrophages from mice with a targeted disruption of the IFN regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) gene (IRF-1-/- mice)(More)
Expression of the interferon-beta (IFN-beta) gene is induced by a variety of agents, including viruses. Evidence has been provided that a mouse nuclear factor, termed interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), specifically binds to the upstream regulatory region of the human IFN-beta gene and mediates virus-induced transcription of the gene. In this study, we(More)
Viral infections commonly induce expression of type I interferon (IFN) genes. The induction is transient and involves transcriptional activation wherein a positive factor, IRF-1, binds to upstream regulatory cis elements. In the present study we report the isolation of a cDNA encoding a novel factor, termed IRF-2, that interacts with the same nucleotide(More)
Interferons (IFNs) are a heterogeneous family of cytokines that exhibits multiple biological activities. Upon viral infection, expression of type I IFNs (i.e., IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) is induced in a variety of differentiated cells but not in cells of embryonal origin. IRF-1 and IRF-2, which bind to the same cis-elements within the promoters of type I IFN(More)
Surface electromyogram (EMG), blood pressure (BP), blink rate (BR) and heart rate (HR) were recorded before and during 4 types of mental task. The mental task involved 3 tasks that encompassed the memory (M), visual search (VS) and color-word (CW) tasks besides the control task (CT) of maintaining a similar posture while focusing on a single spot on the(More)
The transcriptional activator IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and its antagonistic repressor IRF-2 are regulators of the IFN system. IRF-1 also manifests tumor suppressive activity, and its inactivation could contribute to the development of human hematopoietic malignancies. Here, we report the identification of the lysyl oxidase gene as a target gene of(More)
Differential measurements of elliptic flow (v2) for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt[sNN]=200 GeV are used to test and validate predictions from perfect fluid hydrodynamics for scaling of v2 with eccentricity, system size, and transverse kinetic energy (KE T). For KE T identical with mT-m up to approximately 1 GeV the scaling is compatible with(More)
When stimulated with antigen, B cells are influenced by T cells to proliferate and differentiate into antibody-forming cells. Since it was reported that soluble factors could replace certain functions of helper T cells in the antibody response, several different kinds of lymphokines and monokines have been reported in B-cell growth and differentiation.(More)
The transcriptional activator interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and its antagonistic repressor IRF-2 are regulators of the interferon (IFN) system and of cell growth. Here we report that embryonic fibroblasts (EFs) from mice with a null mutation in the IRF-1 gene (IRF-1-/- mice) can be transformed by expression of an activated c-Ha-ras oncogene. This(More)