Hisashi Harada

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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Extracellular survival factors alter a cell's susceptibility to apoptosis, often through posttranslational mechanisms. However, no consistent relationship has been established between such survival signals and the BCL-2 family, where the balance of death agonists versus antagonists determines susceptibility. One distant member, BAD, heterodimerizes with(More)
Cytokines often deliver simultaneous, yet distinct, cell growth and cell survival signals. The 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) is known to regulate cell growth by inducing protein synthesis components. We purified membrane-based p70S6K as a kinase responsible for site-specific phosphorylation of BAD, which inactivates this proapoptotic molecule.(More)
The Bcl-2 antagonist ABT-737 targets Bcl-2/Bcl-xL but not Mcl-1, which may confer resistance to this novel agent. Here, we show that Mcl-1 down-regulation by the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor roscovitine or Mcl-1-shRNA dramatically increases ABT-737 lethality in human leukemia cells. ABT-737 induces Bax conformational change but fails to activate(More)
Signaling pathways between cell surface receptors and the BCL-2 family of proteins regulate cell death. Survival factors induce the phosphorylation and inactivation of BAD, a proapoptotic member. Purification of BAD kinase(s) identified membrane-based cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) as a BAD Ser-112 (S112) site-specific kinase. PKA-specific inhibitors(More)
The "BH3-only" proapoptotic BCL-2 family members initiate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. A small interfering RNA knockdown of BIM confirms this BH3-only member is important for the cytokine-mediated homeostasis of hematopoietic cells. We show here that the phosphorylation status of BIM controls its proapoptotic activity. IL-3, a hematopoietic survival(More)
BAD interacts with anti-apoptotic molecules BCL-2 and BCL-XL and promotes apoptosis. BAD is phosphorylated on serine residues in response to a survival factor, interleukin-3. Phosphorylated BAD cannot bind to BCL-XL or BCL-2 at membrane sites and is found in the cytosol bound to 14-3-3. We report here that deletion mapping and site-directed mutagenesis(More)
Little is known about how growth factors control tissue stem cell survival and proliferation. We analyzed mice with a null mutation of Shp2 (Ptpn11), a key component of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Null embryos die peri-implantation, much earlier than mice that express an Shp2 truncation. Shp2 null blastocysts initially develop normally, but they(More)
B cell homeostasis is maintained by a balance between the continual generation of new cells and their elimination. Here we show proapoptotic BCL-2 family members BAX and BAK are essential for regulating the number of B cells at both immature and mature developmental stages. BAX and BAK are critical mediators of B cell death induced by multiple stimuli. In(More)
A beta-carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (PtCA1) is encoded by the nuclear genome. This enzyme was previously found to be important for the operation of photosynthesis with a high affinity for dissolved inorganic carbon. A cDNA sequence that encodes PtCA1 (ptca1) was shown to possess a presequence of 138 bp (pre138),(More)