Hisao Tsukamoto

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Light sensing starts with phototransduction in photoreceptor cells. The phototransduction cascade has diverged in different species, such as those mediated by transducin in vertebrate rods and cones, by G(q)-type G protein in insect and molluscan rhabdomeric-type visual cells and vertebrate photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, and by G(o)-type G protein(More)
Animal photoreceptor cells can be classified into two distinct types, depending on whether the photopigment is borne on the membrane of a modified cilium (ciliary type) or apical microvilli (rhabdomeric type) [1]. Ciliary photoreceptors are well known as vertebrate rods and cones and are also found in several invertebrates. The rhabdomeric photoreceptor, in(More)
Peropsin, a member of the opsin family, has characteristics of two functionally distinct opsin-groups, that is, amino acid residues conserved among opsins for light-sensing and a retinal-photoisomerase-like molecular property. Although such a bilateral feature of peropsin seems to be important for understanding the diversity of the opsin family, previous(More)
Most opsins selectively bind 11-cis retinal as a chromophore to form a photosensitive pigment, which underlies various physiological functions, such as vision and circadian photoentrainment. Recently, opsin 3 (Opn3), originally called encephalopsin or panopsin, and its homologs were identified in various tissues including brain, eye, and liver in both(More)
The principal eyes of jumping spiders have a unique retina with four tiered photoreceptor layers, on each of which light of different wavelengths is focused by a lens with appreciable chromatic aberration. We found that all photoreceptors in both the deepest and second-deepest layers contain a green-sensitive visual pigment, although green light is only(More)
The counterion, a negatively charged amino acid residue that stabilizes a positive charge on the retinylidene chromophore, is essential for rhodopsin to receive visible light. The counterion in vertebrate rhodopsins, Glu113 in the third transmembrane helix, has an additional role as an intramolecular switch to activate G protein efficiently. Here we show on(More)
We have tested whether arrestin binding requires the G-protein-coupled receptor be a dimer or a multimer. To do this, we encapsulated single-rhodopsin molecules into nanoscale phospholipid particles (so-called nanodiscs) and measured their ability to bind arrestin. Our data clearly show that both visual arrestin and beta-arrestin 1 can bind to monomeric(More)
Rhodopsin and related opsin-based pigments, which are photosensitive membrane proteins, have been extensively studied using a wide variety of techniques, with rhodopsin being the most understood G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Animals use various opsin-based pigments for vision and a wide variety of non-visual functions. Many functionally varied pigments(More)
A non-visual pigment melanopsin, which is localized in photosensitive retinal ganglion cells and is involved in the circadian photoentrainment and pupillary responses in mammals, is phylogenetically close to the visual pigments of invertebrates, such as insects and cephalopods. Recent studies suggested that melanopsin is a bistable pigment and drives a(More)
Time-dependent studies of membrane protein function are hindered by extensive light scattering that impedes application of fast optical absorbance methods. Detergent solubilization reduces light scattering but strongly perturbs rhodopsin activation kinetics. Nanodiscs may be a better alternative if they can be shown to be free from the serious kinetic(More)