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To test the hypothesis that the cellular mechanism whereby chronic deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) induces the improvement of motor deficits lasting after stimulation in the hemiparkinsonian (hemi-PD) rat involves the NMDA receptor-dependent processes in neurons receiving afferents from the STN, we examined whether the NMDA(More)
In view of recent findings that suggest that the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system plays a role in motor control and the acquisition of habits and skills, we hypothesized that the striatum-based function underlying the acquisition of skilled behaviors might be more vulnerable to dopamine depletion than the motor control. To test this hypothesis, we(More)
To examine the role of mGluR1 (a subunit of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor) in the nociceptive responses of rats following a subcutaneous injection of formalin into the plantar surface of the hind paw, we delivered antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) against mGluR1 into the rat lumbar spinal cord (L3-L5) intrathecally using an(More)
Paclitaxel, one of the chemotherapeutic agents clinically used to treat several types of cancer, produces side effects such as peripheral neuropathy, sensory abnormalities, and hyperalgesia. Since hyperalgesia remains after cessation of paclitaxel therapy and becomes chronic, we hypothesize that alteration in memory and the cognitive process of pain(More)
Objectives: A synthetic biodegradable artificial dura mater (DM) can provide benefits such as avoiding the risk of virus infection. The major component is poly-L-lactides. For synthesis of the DM, a catalyst containing dibutyltin (DBT) is used. To evaluate the safety of the artificial DM, the effects of the artificial DM and a DM containing 100 ppm DBT(More)
There have been few morphometric studies on the size of the motoneurons of the human spinal cord. The purpose of the present study is to report the differences in the size of the motoneurons between males and females in the human spinal cord. We examined numbers and transverse cell body areas of the motoneurons of the anterior horn using 16 male and 21(More)
To produce an animal model of a dopa-responsive motor disorder with depletion of dopamine (DA) release in the striatum by dysfunction of the transmitter release machinery of the nigrostriatal DA system, we performed an intra-nigral injection of an HVJ-liposome gene transfer vector containing antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) against synaptotagmin I(More)
Morphological features of the hind limb muscles reflect the muscular function correlating with the locomotion. In this study, the muscles of the baboon hind limb were weighed and the relative muscle weights were compared with those of the human lower extremity. In the baboon, the biceps femoris was the largest (11.60%) and the vastus lateralis (10.67%) was(More)
The use of NR2B antagonists in Parkinsonism is still controversial. To examine their anti-parkinsonian effects, the NR2B antagonist, ifenprodil, and L-DOPA were administered together and separately in hemiparkinsonian rats (hemi-PD) that were subjected to a cylinder test. Recovery from hypoactivity was achieved by single administration of 3-7 mg/kg of(More)