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Neurons are highly polarized cells composed of dendrites, cell bodies, and long axons. Because of the lack of protein synthesis machinery in axons, materials required in axons and synapses have to be transported down the axons after synthesis in the cell body. Fast anterograde transport conveys different kinds of membranous organelles such as mitochondria(More)
A new gene, termed klotho, has been identified that is involved in the suppression of several ageing phenotypes. A defect in klotho gene expression in the mouse results in a syndrome that resembles human ageing, including a short lifespan, infertility, arteriosclerosis, skin atrophy, osteoporosis and emphysema. The gene encodes a membrane protein that(More)
In neuronal axons, various kinds of membranous components are transported along microtubules bidirectionally. However, only two kinds of mechanochemical motor proteins, kinesin and brain dynein, had been identified as transporters of membranous organelles in mammalian neurons. Recently, a series of genes that encode proteins closely related to kinesin heavy(More)
To understand the mechanisms of transport for organelles in the axon, we isolated and sequenced the cDNA encoding KIF4 from murine brain, and characterized the molecule biochemically and immunocytochemically. Complete amino acid sequence analysis of KIF4 and ultrastructural studies of KIF4 molecules expressed in Sf9 cells revealed that the protein contains(More)
Semaphorin 3A is a chemorepulsive axonal guidance molecule that depolymerizes the actin cytoskeleton and collapses growth cones of dorsal root ganglia neurons. Here we investigate the role of LIM-kinase 1, which phosphorylates an actin-depolymerizing protein, cofilin, in semaphorin 3A-induced growth cone collapse. Semaphorin 3A induced phosphorylation and(More)
Bovine microtubule-associated protein-4 (MAP-4), which was previously named MAP-U, consists of an amino-terminal projection domain (N-domain) and a carboxyl-terminal microtubule-binding domain (C-domain) (Aizawa, H., Emori, Y., Murofushi, H., Kawasaki, H., Sakai, H., and Suzuki, K. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 13849-13855). The C-domain contains a region rich(More)
Ro09-0198 is a tetracyclic polypeptide of 19 amino acids that recognizes strictly the structure of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and forms a tight equimolar complex with PE on biological membranes. Using the cyclic peptide coupled with fluorescence-labeled streptavidin, we have analyzed the cell surface localization of PE in dividing Chinese hamster ovary(More)
We previously demonstrated (Ookata et al., 1992, 1993) that the p34cdc2/cyclin B complex associates with microtubules in the mitotic spindle and premeiotic aster in starfish oocytes, and that microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) might be responsible for this interaction. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism by which p34cdc2 kinase associates(More)
A heat-stable microtubule-associated protein (MAP) with apparent molecular weight of 190,000 is a major non-neural MAP which distributes ubiquitously among bovine tissues (termed here MAP-U). Previously we reported that microtubule-binding chymotryptic fragments of MAP-U and tau contain a common assembly-promoting (AP) sequence of 22 amino acid residues(More)
Overlapping cDNA clones encoding the heavy chain of rat brain cytoplasmic dynein have been isolated. The isolated cDNA clones contain an open reading frame of 13,932 bp encoding 4644 aa (M(r), 532,213). The deduced protein sequence of the heavy chain of rat brain dynein shows significant similarity to sea urchin flagellar beta-dynein (27.0% identical) and(More)