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Central carbon metabolism is a basic and exhaustively analyzed pathway. However, the intrinsic robustness of the pathway might still conceal uncharacterized reactions. To test this hypothesis, we constructed systematic multiple-knockout mutants involved in central carbon catabolism in Escherichia coli and tested their growth under 12 different nutrient(More)
IL-17 is a cytokine that induces neutrophil-mediated inflammation, but its role in protective immunity against intracellular bacterial infection remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that IL-17 is an important cytokine not only in the early neutrophil-mediated inflammatory response, but also in T cell-mediated IFN-gamma production and(More)
Athymic nude mice carry neither conventional T cells nor NKT cells of thymic origin. However, NK1.1(-)TCR(int) cells are present in the liver and other immune organs of athymic mice, because these lymphocyte subsets are truly of extrathymic origin. In this study, we examined whether extrathymic T cells had the capability to protect mice from malarial(More)
Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) was originally identified for its possible chemotactic activity against human neutrophils in vitro. It is a 16-kDa protein that is preferentially expressed in the liver. Its homologues have been widely identified in many vertebrates. Current evidence suggests that LECT2 may be a multifunctional protein like(More)
Stronger neo-minophagen C (SNMC), a glycyrrhizin (GL) preparation, has been used for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis. It has been reported that a single administration of SNMC induced the activation of hepatic lymphocytes in number and function in animal studies. However, it is still unknown how SNMC augments the cytotoxic function and why such(More)
Natural killer (NK) T cells are well known to play important roles in both tumor rejection and the defense against infectious. Therefore, the antitumor potential of NKT cell-activating antigens have been the focus for the development of NKT cell-based immunotherapies. Up to now, several studies have revealed that the administrations of glycolipids (e.g.(More)
Asymptomatic malaria can be observed in both stable endemic areas and unstable transmission areas. However, although much attention has been given to acute malaria infections, relatively little attention has been paid to asymptomatic malaria. Nonetheless, because the asymptomatic host serves as a reservoir for the malaria parasite, asymptomatic malaria is(More)
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