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Valproic acid (VPA) has long been used as an antiepileptic drug and recently as a mood stabilizer, and evidence is increasing that VPA exerts neuroprotective effects through changes in a variety of intracellular signalling pathways including upregulation of Bcl-2 protein with an antiapoptotic property and inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta, which is(More)
Calcium-independent group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2beta) is considered to play a role in signal transduction and maintenance of homeostasis or remodeling of membrane phospholipids. A role of iPLA2beta has been suggested in various physiological and pathological processes, including immunity, chemotaxis, and cell death, but the details remain unclear.(More)
TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been considered a signature protein in frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but not in ALS associated with the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene mutations (ALS1). To clarify how TDP may be involved in ALS pathogenesis, clinical and pathological features in cases of sporadic ALS ([SALS] n =(More)
We previously reported that abnormal copper release from mutated Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) proteins might be a common toxic gain-of-function in the pathogenesis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) [Ogawa et al. (1997) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 241, 251-257.]. In the present study, we first examined metallothioneins (MTs), known(More)
A glial reaction associated with up-regulation of inflammatory molecules has been suggested to play an important role in dopaminergic neuron loss in Parkinson's disease (PD). Among inflammatory molecules, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) have been focused upon as key factors in the pathogenesis. However, the mechanism of(More)
BACKGROUND Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disorder caused by a CTG repeat expansion in the DMPK gene. Aberrant messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing of several genes has been reported to explain some of the symptoms in DM1, but the cause of muscle wasting is still unknown. By contrast, many forms of muscular dystrophy are caused by abnormalities(More)
In G93A mice, the most popular model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), neuronal Lewy-body-like hyaline inclusions (LBHIs) and mitochondria-derived vacuoles are observed in addition to motor neuron loss. Although LBHIs are thought to be toxic, the significance of the mitochondria-derived vacuoles has not been fully investigated. In this study, the(More)
In our previous study, we found that CD36-deficient mice showed significant delays in peripheral nerve remyelination after sciatic nerve crush injury and suggested that CD36 played an important role in the restoration of injured peripheral nerves. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CD36 upregulation can promote peripheral nerve remyelination.(More)
Lewy bodies (LBs), which mainly consist of α-synuclein (α-syn), are neuropathological hallmarks of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The fine structure of LBs is unknown, and LBs cannot be made artificially. Nevertheless, many studies have described fibrillisation using recombinant α-syn purified from E. coli. An extremely fundamental problem is(More)
We report a 28-year-old male with dysferlinopathy, who has remained asymptomatic for 10 years from a rhabdomyolysis-like episode. He had been in good health since birth, but felt difficulty in walking after a month and a half of manual labor at 18 years old (at the year 2000). Rhabdomyolysis was suspected because of muscle weakness and elevated serum CK of(More)