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UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II drug metabolism enzymes that catalyze the glucuronidation of numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds. UGTs are divided into two families, UGT1 and UGT2, based on evolutionary divergence and homology. Nine UGT1A and seven UGT2B functional isoforms have been identified in humans. Glucuronidation(More)
Protein-protein interactions between human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1, UGT1A4, and UGT1A6 were investigated using double expression systems in HEK293 cells (UGT1A1/UGT1A4, UGT1A1/UGT1A6, and UGT1A4/UGT1A6). The substrates specific for UGT1A1 (estradiol and bilirubin), UGT1A4 (imipramine and trifluoperazine), and UGT1A6 (serotonin and diclofenac)(More)
We established stable HEK293 cell lines expressing double isoforms, UGT1A1 and UGT1A9, UGT1A4 and UGT1A9, or UGT1A6 and UGT1A9, as well as stable cell lines expressing each single isoform. To analyze the protein-protein interaction between the UGT1As, we investigated the thermal stability and resistance to detergent. UGT1A9 uniquely demonstrated thermal(More)
Human CYP2A6 is responsible for the metabolism of nicotine and its genetic polymorphisms affect smoking behavior and risk of lung cancer. In the present study, we identified a novel type of CYP2A6 gene duplication that is created through an unequal crossover event with the CYP2A7 gene at 5.2 to 5.6 kilobases downstream from the stop codon. The novel(More)
Glucuronidation of thyroxine is a major metabolic pathway facilitating its excretion. In this study, we characterized the glucuronidation of thyroxine in human liver, jejunum, and kidney microsomes, and identified human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms involved in the activity. Human jejunum microsomes showed a lower K(m) value (24.2 microM) than(More)
UNLABELLED INTRODUCTION Training systems for laparoscopic surgery are useful for basic training but are not suitable for specific training corresponding to the condition of a given patient. We, therefore, have developed an unusual training system: a patient-specific simulator for laparoscopic surgery. When specific data of each individual patient are(More)
The acquisition of physical quantities for a living body in surgery is an important and necessary step toward developing a sophisticated preoperative surgical simulator and its validation and navigation. We have developed a multimodal measuring device that minimizes interference with the movements of the surgeon. We conducted nephrectomy surgery using a(More)
In contrast to cell cultures, particularly to cell lines, tissues or organs removed from the body cannot be maintained for long in any culture conditions. Although it is apparent that in vivo regional homeostasis is facilitated by the microvascular system, mimicking such a system ex vivo is difficult and has not been proved effective. Using the culture(More)
Objectives. Here we developed a unique training system, a patient specific virtual reality simulator, for laparoscopic renal surgery. To develop the simulator, it was important to first identify the physical properties of the organ. Methods. We recorded the force measured during laparoscopic surgery performed on pigs by using forceps with pressure sensors.(More)
This paper describes practical case studies of using Trac as a platform for collecting empirical data in the development of small and medium-sized enterprise systems. Project managers have been using various empirical data such as size, development efforts and number of bugs found. These data are vital for management, although the cost entailed is not small(More)