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Numerous human syndromes are the result of abnormal cranial neural crest development. One group of such defects, referred to as CATCH-22 (cardiac defects, abnormal facies, thymic hypoplasia, cleft palate, hypocalcemia, associated with chromosome 22 microdeletion) syndrome, exhibit craniofacial and cardiac defects resulting from abnormal development of the(More)
Butyrate is a well known colonic luminal short chain fatty acid, which arrests cell growth and induces differentiation in various cell types. We examined the effect of butyrate on the expression of WAF1/Cip1, a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, and its relation to growth arrest in a p53-mutated human colon cancer cell line WiDr. Five millimolar(More)
Many transcription factors regulate specific temporal-spatial events during cardiac differentiation; however, the mechanisms that regulate such events are largely unknown. Using a modified subtractive hybridization method to identify specific genes that influence early cardiac development, we found that Bop is expressed specifically in cardiac and skeletal(More)
We have discovered an unusual homeodomain protein, called HOP, which is comprised simply of a homeodomain. HOP is highly expressed in the developing heart where its expression is dependent on the cardiac-restricted homeodomain protein Nkx2.5. HOP does not bind DNA and acts as an antagonist of serum response factor (SRF), which regulates the opposing(More)
Appropriate interactions between the epithelium and adjacent neural crest-derived mesenchyme are necessary for normal pharyngeal arch development. Disruption of pharyngeal arch development in humans underlies many of the craniofacial defects observed in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (del22q11), but the genes responsible remain unknown. Tbx1 is a T-box(More)
Birth defects, which occur in one out of 20 live births, often affect multiple organs that have common developmental origins. Human and mouse studies indicate that haploinsufficiency of the transcription factor TBX1 disrupts pharyngeal arch development, resulting in the cardiac and craniofacial features associated with microdeletion of 22q11 (del22q11), the(More)
During development, control of proliferation of neuronal precursor cells plays a crucial role in determining the number of neurons. Proliferation is driven by mitogens, but how it is terminated remains a mystery. In this study, we examined the role of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in the control of proliferation of cerebellar granule cell precursors(More)
Heart disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Owing to the limited regenerative capacity of heart tissue, cardiac regenerative therapy has emerged as an attractive approach. Direct reprogramming of human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs) into cardiomyocytes may hold great potential for this purpose. We reported previously that induced(More)
BACKGROUND Calcification is a common finding in human coronary arteries; however, the relationship between calcification patterns, plaque morphology, and patterns of remodeling of culprit lesions in a comparison of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and those with stable conditions has not been documented. METHODS AND RESULTS Preinterventional(More)
Fibroblasts can be directly reprogrammed into cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs) by overexpression of cardiac transcription factors or microRNAs. However, induction of functional cardiomyocytes is inefficient, and molecular mechanisms of direct reprogramming remain undefined. Here, we demonstrate that addition of miR-133a (miR-133) to Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5(More)