Learn More
Hereditary dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by variable combinations of myoclonus, epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia, choreoathetosis and dementia. By specifically searching published brain cDNA sequences for the presence of CAG repeats we identified unstable expansion of a CAG in a gene on(More)
To clarify the extensibility of thin actin and thick myosin filaments in muscle, we examined the spacings of actin and myosin filament-based reflections in x-ray diffraction patterns at high resolution during isometric contraction of frog skeletal muscles and steady lengthening of the active muscles using synchrotron radiation as an intense x-ray source and(More)
Individual classes of neural cells differentiate at distinct locations in the developing vertebrate nervous system. We provide evidence that the pattern of cell differentiation along the dorsoventral axis of the chick neural tube is regulated by signals derived from two ventral midline cell groups, the notochord and floor plate. Grafting an additional(More)
A major catabolic pathway for gibberellin (GA) is initiated by 2beta-hydroxylation, a reaction catalyzed by GA 2-oxidase. We have isolated and characterized a cDNA, designated Oryza sativa GA 2-oxidase 1 (OsGA2ox1) from rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Nipponbare) that encodes a GA 2-oxidase. The encoded protein, produced by heterologous expression in Escherichia(More)
The mature form of chitinase A1 from Bacillus circulans WL-12 comprises a C-terminal domain, two type III modules (domains), and a large N-terminal domain which contains the catalytic site of the enzyme. In order to better define the roles of these chitinase domains in chitin degradation, modified chiA genes encoding various deletions of chitinase A1 were(More)
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear factor that is released extracellularly as a late mediator of lethality in sepsis as well as after necrotic, but not apoptotic, death. Here we demonstrate that in contrast to the delayed role of HMGB1 in the systemic inflammation of sepsis, HMGB1 acts as an early mediator of inflammation and organ damage in(More)
To test the hypothesis that the frequencies of normal alleles (ANs) with a relatively large number of CAG repeats (large ANs) are related to the prevalences of the dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs)-SCA types 1, 2, 3 (Machado-Joseph disease), 6, and dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA)-we investigated the relative prevalences of these diseases(More)
Historically speaking, the diagnosis of primary osteoporosis was performed mainly by radiographic methods [1–3]. Recently, bone mineral density (BMD) measurement has become available and in 1994, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed new diagnostic criteria of this disease based on the BMD values [4]. Because the BMD values used in the WHO diagnostic(More)
Two ligands for Eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases, RAGS and ELF-1, have been implicated in the control of development of the retinotectal projection. Both molecules are expressed in overlapping gradients in the tectum, the target area of retinal ganglion cell axons. In two in vitro assays ELF-1 is shown to have a repellent axon guidance function for(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder that affects the cerebellum and other areas of the central nervous system. We have devised a novel strategy, the direct identification of repeat expansion and cloning technique (DIRECT), which allows selective detection of expanded CAG repeats and cloning of the genes(More)