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High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear factor that is released extracellularly as a late mediator of lethality in sepsis as well as after necrotic, but not apoptotic, death. Here we demonstrate that in contrast to the delayed role of HMGB1 in the systemic inflammation of sepsis, HMGB1 acts as an early mediator of inflammation and organ damage in(More)
We clarified the modulating action of the endocannabinoid system, and its possible mediation by the arachidonic acid cascade, on the reinstatement of methamphetamine (METH)-seeking behavior, using the intravenous self-administration paradigm in rats. Following 12 days of self-administration of METH, the replacement of METH with saline resulted in a gradual(More)
The glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a 137 amino acid protein, which was originally identified as a dexamethasone-inducible gene, and is characterized by a leucine zipper domain, an N-terminal domain and a C-terminal proline and glutamic acid rich domain. In this study, we performed in situ hybridization analyses and found that many neurons(More)
Methylcobalamin (MeCbl), a vitamin B12 analog, promotes neurite outgrowth by activating Akt in neurons. However, Akt is involved in many cellular functions, and the downstream signal of Akt that promotes neurite outgrowth in neurons in the presence of MeCbl remains obscure. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that(More)
p21(Cip1/WAF1) has cell cycle inhibitory activity by binding to and inhibiting both cyclin/Cdk kinases and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Here we show that p21(Cip1/WAF1) is induced in the cytoplasm during the course of differentiation of chick retinal precursor cells and N1E-115 cells. Ectopic expression of p21(Cip1/WAF1) lacking the nuclear(More)
Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) is increased following the nervous system injury. Generally IL-1beta induces inflammation, leading to neural degeneration, while several neuropoietic effects have also been reported. Although neurite outgrowth is an important step in nerve regeneration, whether IL-1beta takes(More)
HuD is an RNA-binding protein that has been shown to induce neuronal differentiation by stabilizing labile mRNAs carrying AU-rich instability elements. Here, we show a novel mechanism of arginine methylation of HuD by coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) that affected mRNA turnover of p21cip1/waf1 mRNA in PC12 cells. CARM1(More)
Based on previous conflicting reports that the two forms of pig-tailed macaque (northern and southern) exist as separate species, subspecies, or forms, and that their boundary zone lies in Thailand, a survey of the distribution range and morphology of pig-tailed macaques in Thailand was conducted during 2003–2010. We first conducted a questionnaire survey.(More)