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To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)
Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) is a congenital anomaly defined as a union of the pancreatic and biliary duct that is located outside the duodenal wall. The Japanese Study Group on Pancreaticobiliary Maljunction and the Committee for Registration enrolled and analyzed 1627 patients with PBM who had been diagnosed and treated from January 1, 1990 to(More)
Hematopoietic function of some aplastic anemia (AA) patients is dependent on the administration of cyclosporine (CyA). To investigate whether certain HLA class II genes are associated with susceptibility to such CyA-dependent AA, we determined the HLA class II alleles of 59 AA patients treated with CyA. Among 26 patients successfully treated with CyA, 13(More)
Arginine vasopressin- (AVP) and oxytocin- (OXT) secreting magnocellular neurons undergo gross structural changes with chronic physiological stimulation. Here, we investigated subcellular aspects of plasticity in rat neurohypophysial terminals during dehydration. Ultrastructural analyses demonstrated that chronic dehydration by 2% NaCl drinking for 7 days(More)
A 3.5-kb HindIII DNA fragment containing the secY gene of Bacillus subtilis has been cloned into plasmid pUC13 using the Escherichia coli secY gene as a probe. The complete nucleotide sequence of the cloned DNA indicated that it contained five open reading frames, and their order in the region, given by the gene product, was suggested to be(More)
UNLABELLED FK506 is an immunosuppressive agent that has been reported to have neuroprotective effects in several kinds of rodent models of stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of FK506 in a monkey model of stroke. METHODS Cynomolgus monkeys underwent 3 h of occlusion followed by 5 h of reperfusion of the right(More)
Annexin V can be used to detect apoptotic cells in vitro and in vivo, based on its ability to identify extracellular phosphatidylserine, which arises during apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the synthesis of fluorine-18 labelled annexin V as a positron emission tomography tracer for apoptosis imaging. The distribution of [18F]annexin V and(More)
The purpose of the present study was to determine after what time period hydroxyl radical formation contributes most to ischemic brain damage in focal ischemia, using a hydroxyl radical scavenger, EPC-K1, L-ascorbic acid 2-[3,4-dihydro-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecyl)-2H-1-be nzopyran-6yl-hydrogen phosphate] potassium salt. Focal ischemia(More)
UNLABELLED Several studies of focal ischemia and reperfusion in animal models have proposed that reperfusion contributes to brain damage. However, the extent to which reperfusion affects the brain, especially in acute stroke patients, remains unclear. Our purpose in this study was to determine whether reperfusion injury can be detected with PET and to(More)
We have determined the nucleotide (nt) sequence of the wild-type div+ gene of Bacillus subtilis which complements the temperature-sensitive div-341 mutation and is involved in cell septation, sporulation, secretion of extracellular enzymes, development of competence, autolysis and spore outgrowth. It has an open reading frame encoding 841 amino acids (aa)(More)