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Most multicellular organisms use steroids as signalling molecules for physiological and developmental regulation. Two different modes of steroid action have been described in animal systems: the well-studied gene regulation response mediated by nuclear receptors, and the rapid non-genomic responses mediated by proposed membrane-bound receptors. Plant(More)
The Arabidopsis bas1-D mutation suppresses the long hypocotyl phenotype caused by mutations in the photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB). The adult phenotype of bas1-D phyB-4 double mutants mimics that of brassinosteroid biosynthetic and response mutants. bas1-D phyB-4 has reduced levels of brassinosteroids and accumulates 26-hydroxybrassinolide in feeding(More)
Here we report a novel Arabidopsis dwarf mutant, fackel-J79, whose adult morphology resembles that of brassinosteroid-deficient mutants but also displays distorted embryos, supernumerary cotyledons, multiple shoot meristems, and stunted roots. We cloned the FACKEL gene and found that it encodes a protein with sequence similarity to both the human sterol(More)
The Arabidopsis DEETIOLATED2 (DET2) gene has been cloned and shown to encode a protein that shares significant sequence identity with mammalian steroid 5 alpha-reductases. Loss of DET2 function causes many defects in Arabidopsis development that can be rescued by the application of brassinolide; therefore, we propose that DET2 encodes a reductase that acts(More)
A gene cluster encoding five enzymes of the mevalonate pathway had been cloned from Streptomyces sp. strain CL190. This gene cluster contained an additional ORF, orfD, encoding an unknown protein that was detected in some archaebacteria and some Gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus. The recombinant product of orfD was purified as a soluble(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of subacute and chronic subarachnoid hemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS The authors performed 19 FLAIR MR imaging examinations at 0.5 T in 14 adult patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage 3-45 days after the ictus and 22 FLAIR examinations in 22(More)
Several eubacteria including Esherichia coli use an alternative nonmevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate instead of the ubiquitous mevalonate pathway. In the alternative pathway, 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol or its 4-phosphate, which is proposed to be formed from 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate via intramolecular rearrangement(More)
In addition to the ubiquitous mevalonate pathway, Streptomyces sp. strain CL190 utilizes the nonmevalonate pathway for isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis. The initial step of this nonmevalonate pathway is the formation of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) by condensation of pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate catalyzed by DXP synthase. The(More)
A patient with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) was studied with serial diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) after stroke-like episodes and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in an infarct-like lesion. In the acute and subacute stages, the affected area gave high signal on DWI and its ADC(More)