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Several grammars have been proposed for modeling RNA pseudoknotted structure. In this paper, we focus on multiple context-free grammars (MCFGs), which are natural extension of context-free grammars and can represent pseudoknots, and extend a specific subclass of MCFGs to a probabilistic model called SMCFG. We present a polynomial time parsing algorithm for(More)
A number of grammatical formalisms were introduced to define the syntax of natural languages. Among them are parallel multiple context-free grammars (pmcfg's) and lexical-functional grammars (lfg's). Pmcfg's and their subclass called multiple context-free grammars (mcfg's) are natural extensions of cfg's, and pmcfg's are known to be recognizable in(More)
It is a well-known theorem by Chomsky and Schützenberger (1963) that every context-free language can be represented as a homo-morphic image of the intersection of a Dyck language and a regular language. This paper gives a Chomsky-Schützenberger-type characterization for multiple context-free languages, which are a natural extension of context-free(More)
We propose a method for detecting the generation of garbage cells by analyzing a source text written in a functional programming language which uses ordinary linked lists to implement list-type values. For a subexpression such as <italic>F</italic>(<italic>G</italic>( . . . )) in a program where the function values of <italic>F</italic> and(More)