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In addition to haem copper oxidases, all higher plants, some algae, yeasts, molds, metazoans, and pathogenic microorganisms such as Trypanosoma brucei contain an additional terminal oxidase, the cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX is a diiron carboxylate protein that catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water by ubiquinol. In(More)
Chitosan is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer and is useful as a non-viral vector for gene delivery. In order to deliver pDNA/chitosan complex into macrophages expressing a mannose receptor, mannose-modified chitosan (man-chitosan) was employed. The cellular uptake of pDNA/man-chitosan complexes through mannose recognition was then observed. The(More)
Chitin nanofibers were isolated from the cell walls of five different types of mushrooms by the removal of glucans, minerals, and proteins, followed by a simple grinding treatment under acidic conditions. The Chitin nanofibers thus obtained have a uniform structure and a long fiber length. The width of the nanofibers depended on the type of mushrooms and(More)
Surface-deacetylated chitin nanofiber reinforced chitosan films were prepared. The nano-composite films were highly transparent of approximately 84% at 600 nm due to the nanometer-sized fillers and chitosan matrix, which were embedded in the cavities and on the rough surface of the nanofiber networks. Due to the extended crystalline structure, the(More)
Chitosan is a useful nonviral vector for gene delivery. To make a pDNA/chitosan complex specific to hepatocytes, lactose-modified chitosan (lac-chitosan) was synthesized. When the percentage of lactose residues substituted was 8%, lac-chitosan showed excellent DNA-binding ability, good protection of DNA from nuclease, and the suppression of self-aggregation(More)
Chitin nanofibers were prepared from dried crab shells by a simple grinding treatment in a never-dried state under an acidic condition after the removal of proteins and minerals. The obtained nanofibers were observed by FE-SEM and found to have a uniform width of approximately 10-20 nm and high aspect ratio; both these findings were similar to those for(More)
Chitin nanofibers were acetylated to modify the fiber surface and were characterized in detail. The acetyl DS could be controlled from 0.99 to 2.96 by changing the reaction time. FT-IR spectra indicate that chitin nanofibers were acetylated completely after 50 min reaction time. X-ray diffraction profiles and TGA curves show that the chitin nanofibers were(More)
Lysozyme susceptibility of partially deacetylated chitins (DACs) was investigated by viscometric and gel permeation chromatographic procedures. The highest lysozyme susceptibility was shown by the DAC of around 70% deacetylation which have already been reported to have the highest immunoadjuvant activity through mouse peritoneal macrophage activation.
Two types of biological activities of the carbohydrate-branched chitosan derivatives were investigated. One is the specific interaction with lectins and bacterium. The other is activation of canine polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cells. The specific bindings of the L-fucose-branched chitosan derivative with Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) and the(More)
The enzymatic (lysozyme, chitinase etc.) digestibility of chitins obtained from squid pen and shrimp shell, and of partially deacetylated chitins (DA-chitins) was investigated. The digestibility of various chitins by the chitinase from Bacillus sp. PI-7S was much higher than that by lysozyme, and beta-chitin was digested more smoothly than alpha-chitin.(More)