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Arc/Arg3.1 is an immediate-early gene whose mRNA is rapidly transcribed and targeted to dendrites of neurons as they engage in information processing and storage. Moreover, Arc/Arg3.1 is known to be required for durable forms of synaptic plasticity and learning. Despite these intriguing links to plasticity, Arc/Arg3.1's molecular function remains enigmatic.(More)
Weakly tetanized synapses in area CA1 of the hippocampus that ordinarily display long-term potentiation lasting approximately 3 h (called early-LTP) will maintain a longer-lasting change in efficacy (late-LTP) if the weak tetanization occurs shortly before or after strong tetanization of an independent, but convergent, set of synapses in CA1. The synaptic(More)
The neuronal immediate early gene Arc/Arg-3.1 is widely used as one of the most reliable molecular markers for intense synaptic activity in vivo. However, the cis-acting elements responsible for such stringent activity dependence have not been firmly identified. Here we combined luciferase reporter assays in cultured cortical neurons and comparative genome(More)
The Arc/Arg3.1 gene product is rapidly upregulated by strong synaptic activity and critically contributes to weakening synapses by promoting AMPA-R endocytosis. However, how activity-induced Arc is redistributed and determines the synapses to be weakened remains unclear. Here, we show targeting of Arc to inactive synapses via a high-affinity interaction(More)
Ca(2+) signaling plays a central role in activity-dependent regulation of dendritic arborization, but key molecular mechanisms downstream of calcium elevation remain poorly understood. Here we show that the C-terminal region of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CLICK-III (CL3)/CaMKIgamma, a membrane-anchored CaMK, was uniquely modified by two(More)
Long lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation require new mRNA and protein synthesis. While activity-dependent expression of immediate-early genes has long been thought to account for such critical de novo macromolecular synthesis, experimental proof has been scarce until recently. During the past few decades, a growing number of(More)
Ca(2+) signaling plays important roles during both axonal and dendritic growth. Yet whether and how Ca(2+) rises may trigger and contribute to the development of long-range cortical connections remains mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrate that two separate limbs of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK)-CaMKI cascades,(More)
How information encoded in glutamate release rates at individual synapses is converted into biochemical activation patterns of postsynaptic enzymes remains unexplored. To address this, we developed a dual fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging platform and recorded CaMKIIα and calcineurin activities in hippocampal neurons while varying(More)
In humans and monkeys, memory consists of various components which were initially revealed through neuropsychological studies of amnesic patients. One memory component, the long-term memory about facts and events (declarative memory), has been shown to require the integrity of the medial temporal lobe and the neocortex. To investigate a map of gene(More)
Functional roles of the cortical backward signal in long-term memory formation were studied in monkeys performing a visual pair-association task. Before learning of the task, the anterior commissure of the monkeys was transected, disconnecting the anterior temporal cortex of each hemisphere. After training with 12 pairs of pictures, we injected a grid of(More)