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Arc/Arg3.1 is an immediate-early gene whose mRNA is rapidly transcribed and targeted to dendrites of neurons as they engage in information processing and storage. Moreover, Arc/Arg3.1 is known to be required for durable forms of synaptic plasticity and learning. Despite these intriguing links to plasticity, Arc/Arg3.1's molecular function remains enigmatic.(More)
When new learning occurs against the background of established prior knowledge, relevant new information can be assimilated into a schema and thereby expand the knowledge base. An animal model of this important component of memory consolidation reveals that systems memory consolidation can be very fast. In experiments with rats, we found that the(More)
The neuronal immediate early gene Arc/Arg-3.1 is widely used as one of the most reliable molecular markers for intense synaptic activity in vivo. However, the cis-acting elements responsible for such stringent activity dependence have not been firmly identified. Here we combined luciferase reporter assays in cultured cortical neurons and comparative genome(More)
Weakly tetanized synapses in area CA1 of the hippocampus that ordinarily display long-term potentiation lasting approximately 3 h (called early-LTP) will maintain a longer-lasting change in efficacy (late-LTP) if the weak tetanization occurs shortly before or after strong tetanization of an independent, but convergent, set of synapses in CA1. The synaptic(More)
Long lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation require new mRNA and protein synthesis. While activity-dependent expression of immediate-early genes has long been thought to account for such critical de novo macromolecular synthesis, experimental proof has been scarce until recently. During the past few decades, a growing number of(More)
Ca(2+) signaling plays a central role in activity-dependent regulation of dendritic arborization, but key molecular mechanisms downstream of calcium elevation remain poorly understood. Here we show that the C-terminal region of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CLICK-III (CL3)/CaMKIgamma, a membrane-anchored CaMK, was uniquely modified by two(More)
Identifying the neuronal ensembles that respond to specific stimuli and mapping their projection patterns in living animals are fundamental challenges in neuroscience. To this end, we engineered a synthetic promoter, the enhanced synaptic activity-responsive element (E-SARE), that drives neuronal activity-dependent gene expression more potently than other(More)
Physiological scrotal hypothermia is necessary for normal spermatogenesis and fertility in mammals. Cirp is a recently identified cold-inducible RNA-binding protein that is inducible at 32 degrees C in mouse somatic cells in vitro. Cirp is constitutively expressed in the testis of mouse and structurally highly similar to RBM1, a candidate for the human(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in southern China, including Guangxi Province, is among the highest in the world. Investigations of the etiology of HCC in this area have focused on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and aflatoxin. However, hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been shown to be a possible pathogenic agent for HCC in a number of(More)
PURPOSE This study was conducted to clarify which matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a key role in destruction of the underlying basement membrane (BM) of superficial urothelial carcinomas. Urine concentrations of MMP-9 and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were also measured. MATERIALS AND METHODS Overexpression of MMP-1, MMP-2(More)