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Progestin preparations are made of synthetic progesterone and have often been used for hormone therapy in gynecological patients with endometriosis or endometrial cancer. Hormone therapy using progestin is considered to be one of the effective means of treatment particularly when dealing with endometrial cancer(More)
Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC) is a histologic subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer with a distinct clinical behavior. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of CCC. The CCC is more likely to be detected at an early stage than high-grade serous cancers, and when confined within the ovary, the prognosis is good. However, advanced(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with completely or optimally resected uterine carcinosarcoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a single-arm multicenter prospective phase II trial at 20 Japanese medical facilities. Eligible patients had histologically confirmed uterine carcinosarcoma without(More)
Point mutations of KRAS and BRAF genes are thought to be important in carcinogenesis of colon cancer. In particular, gene instability caused by decreased expression of the hMLH1 gene, a DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene, may be linked to the activating BRAF V600E point mutation in sporadic colon cancer. However, a consensus has not been established regarding(More)
OBJECTIVES Incidence of lymph node metastasis is relatively high even in early-stage epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC). Lymphadenectomy is important in the surgical treatment of EOC; however, the exact role of lymphadenectomy in the management of EOC remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated lymph node metastasis in stages I and II EOC patients. (More)
Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis because early detection is difficult and recurrent ovarian cancer is usually drug-resistant. The morbidity and mortality of ovarian cancer are high worldwide and new methods of diagnosis and therapy are needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that are involved in carcinogenesis,(More)
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is an indicator of DNA instability and is caused by abnormalities in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes such as hMLH1, hMSH2 and hMSH6. MSI occurs frequently in endometrial cancer (in approximately 30% of cases), and accumulation of gene mutations due to MSI may therefore have a major role in the mechanism of malignant(More)
Endometrial cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women worldwide. Therefore elucidation of the pathogenesis and development of effective treatment for endometrial cancer are important. However, several aspects of the mechanism of carcinogenesis in the endometrium remain unclear. Associations with genetic variation and mutations of cancer-related(More)
Improvements in epigenetics have resulted in identification of a number of genes with aberrant hypermethylation associated with systematic occurrence of cancer. It is now evident that aberrant hypermethylation inactivates cancer-related genes including those associated with cell cycle control, apoptosis, and DNA repair. An epigenetic analysis of DNA(More)
Epimutation is defined as abnormal transcriptional repression of active genes and/or abnormal activation of usually repressed genes caused by errors in epigenetic gene repression. Epimutation arises in somatic cells and the germline, and constitutional epimutation may also occur. Epimutation is the first step of(More)