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Despite the lack of direct evidence, it is generally believed that top-down signals are mediated by the abundant feedback connections from higher- to lower-order sensory areas. Here we provide direct evidence for a top-down mechanism. We stained the visual cortex of the ferret with a voltage-sensitive dye and presented a short-duration contrast square. This(More)
In addition to the major anatomical pathways from V1 into the temporal lobe, there are other smaller, "bypass" routes that are poorly understood. To investigate the direct projection from V1 to V4 (bypassing V2) and from V2 to TEO (bypassing V4), we injected the foveal and parafoveal representations of V4 and TEO with different retrograde tracers in five(More)
Using systematic electrophysiological mapping, architectonics and the global pattern of interhemispheric connectivity, we have identified three visual areas in the lateral most part of the posterior suprasylvian gyrus. The most posterior and largest area we call area 20a and anterior to this we defined a smaller area, area 20b. These areas lie lateral to(More)
Although circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels have been found to be increased in weight-losing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the main causes for this phenomenon remain to be elucidated. Since hypoxia itself can enhance the production of the TNF-alpha in vitro, we studied the relationship between hypoxemia and(More)
Power spectral analysis of the EEG at the neonatal period was performed in 50 premature babies and 36 mature babies. The gestational age ranged from 26 to 40 weeks, and birth weight from 762 g to 3,232 g. All EEGs were recorded when the babies reached to 37-41 weeks of conceptional age, and analyzed using fast Fourier transformation. The relative power in(More)
The lung could be the target organ to cellular damage, since it is directly exposed to high concentrations of oxygen. Acute exercise and age would be an added challenge to the lung, and therefore, we investigated alterations of major lung antioxidant enzymes (manganese-superoxide dismutase, Mn-SOD; copper-zinc-SOD, Cu-Zn-SOD; glutathione peroxidase, GPX;(More)
Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple variants that confer risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, established associations explain only a part of the heritability. Thus, even at the genome-wide association studies era, candidate gene approach should be still useful. Recent interventional studies against the(More)
A 66-year-old man (case 1) and a 71-year-old woman (case 2) showed systemic degeneration of the globus pallidus, substancia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, centrum medianum thalami and at times, superior colliculus in the midbrain. In the pallido-nigral system, neuronal loss was severe in both cases and an increase of pigment and granular spheroids was marked(More)
The ventral lateral geniculate nucleus is a small extrageniculate visual structure that has a complex cytoarchitecture and diverse connections. In addition to small-celled medial and lateral divisions, we cytoarchitectonically defined a small-celled dorsal division. A large-celled intermediate division intercalated between the three small-celled divisions,(More)