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Despite the lack of direct evidence, it is generally believed that top-down signals are mediated by the abundant feedback connections from higher- to lower-order sensory areas. Here we provide direct evidence for a top-down mechanism. We stained the visual cortex of the ferret with a voltage-sensitive dye and presented a short-duration contrast square. This(More)
The posterior parietal cortex is included in the dorsal cortical visual pathway underlying the three-dimensional (3-D) visual recognition of space and objects. The neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) respond visually to the three-dimensional objects, whereas those in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP) respond to hand movements to grasp them.(More)
Using systematic electrophysiological mapping, architectonics and the global pattern of interhemispheric connectivity, we have identified three visual areas in the lateral most part of the posterior suprasylvian gyrus. The most posterior and largest area we call area 20a and anterior to this we defined a smaller area, area 20b. These areas lie lateral to(More)
The lung could be the target organ to cellular damage, since it is directly exposed to high concentrations of oxygen. Acute exercise and age would be an added challenge to the lung, and therefore, we investigated alterations of major lung antioxidant enzymes (manganese-superoxide dismutase, Mn-SOD; copper-zinc-SOD, Cu-Zn-SOD; glutathione peroxidase, GPX;(More)
The ventral lateral geniculate nucleus is a small extrageniculate visual structure that has a complex cytoarchitecture and diverse connections. In addition to small-celled medial and lateral divisions, we cytoarchitectonically defined a small-celled dorsal division. A large-celled intermediate division intercalated between the three small-celled divisions,(More)
We examined the effect of occlusal disharmony in senescence-accelerated (SAMP8) mice on plasma corticosterone levels, hippocampal neuron number, and spatial performance in the water maze. The bite-raised condition was associated with an accelerated age-related decline in spatial memory, increased plasma corticosterone levels, and a decreased number of(More)
During brain development, cAMP induces morphological changes and inhibits growth effects in several cell types. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the growth inhibition remain unknown. Tumor suppressor protein phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase that inhibits the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)(More)
IMPORTANCE No highly effective interventions to prevent delirium have been identified. OBJECTIVE To examine whether ramelteon, a melatonin agonist, is effective for the prevention of delirium. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A multicenter, rater-blinded, randomized placebo-controlled trial was performed in intensive care units and regular acute wards(More)
Long-term continuous exposure to high ambient temperatures induces complete heat acclimation in humans and animals. However, to date, the effects of long-term exposure to heat stress on cells have not been fully evaluated. In this study, we investigated an adaptive physiological process induced in culture cells by continuous exposure to mild heat stress for(More)