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Despite the lack of direct evidence, it is generally believed that top-down signals are mediated by the abundant feedback connections from higher- to lower-order sensory areas. Here we provide direct evidence for a top-down mechanism. We stained the visual cortex of the ferret with a voltage-sensitive dye and presented a short-duration contrast square. This(More)
Using systematic electrophysiological mapping, architectonics and the global pattern of interhemispheric connectivity, we have identified three visual areas in the lateral most part of the posterior suprasylvian gyrus. The most posterior and largest area we call area 20a and anterior to this we defined a smaller area, area 20b. These areas lie lateral to(More)
OBJECTIVE Attention to risk of antipsychotics for older patients with delirium has been paid. A clinical question was whether risk of antipsychotics for older patients with delirium would exceed efficacy of those even in the general hospital setting. METHODS A prospective observational study proceeded over a 1-year period at 33 general hospitals, where at(More)
In the present study, we tried to establish an efficient assay for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in human plasma using a 96-well microplate. TAC was assessed using lag time by antioxidants against the myoglobin-induced oxidation of 2,2'-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) with hydrogen peroxide, and expressed as Trolox equivalent. The(More)
Lamina formation in the developing cerebral cortex requires precisely regulated generation and migration of the cortical progenitor cells. To test the possible involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the formation of the cortical lamina, we investigated the effects of BDNF protein and anti-BDNF antibody separately administered into the(More)
Web services have become a key technology for bioinformatics, since life science databases are globally decentralized and the exponential increase in the amount of available data demands for efficient systems without the need to transfer entire databases for every step of an analysis. However, various incompatibilities among database resources and analysis(More)
We examined the effect of occlusal disharmony in senescence-accelerated (SAMP8) mice on plasma corticosterone levels, hippocampal neuron number, and spatial performance in the water maze. The bite-raised condition was associated with an accelerated age-related decline in spatial memory, increased plasma corticosterone levels, and a decreased number of(More)
Calcium deficiency is considered to increase intracellular calcium level; thus the aim of the current study was to elucidate whether dietary calcium restriction enhanced exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat diaphragm. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a control group or a group subjected to 1 mo of calcium restriction. In(More)