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Despite the lack of direct evidence, it is generally believed that top-down signals are mediated by the abundant feedback connections from higher- to lower-order sensory areas. Here we provide direct evidence for a top-down mechanism. We stained the visual cortex of the ferret with a voltage-sensitive dye and presented a short-duration contrast square. This(More)
In mammalian cells, it has been shown that adjacent multiple DNA replicons, termed a replicon cluster or a replicon domain, are replicated coordinately in a defined temporal order during the DNA synthetic (S) phase. However, no intranuclear structure of this replicon domain has been revealed in the nucleus labelled with [3H]thymidine at the limited(More)
In addition to the major anatomical pathways from V1 into the temporal lobe, there are other smaller, "bypass" routes that are poorly understood. To investigate the direct projection from V1 to V4 (bypassing V2) and from V2 to TEO (bypassing V4), we injected the foveal and parafoveal representations of V4 and TEO with different retrograde tracers in five(More)
The crystal structure of the RuvC protein, a Holliday junction resolvase from E. coli, has been determined at 2.5 A resolution. The enzyme forms a dimer of 19 kDa subunits related by a dyad axis. Together with results from extensive mutational analyses, the refined structure reveals that the catalytic center, comprising four acidic residues, lies at the(More)
Synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], a signaling phospholipid, is primarily carried out by phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase [PI(4)P5K], which has been reported to be regulated by RhoA and Rac1. Unexpectedly, we find that the GTPgammaS-dependent activator of PI(4)P5Kalpha is the small G protein ADP-ribosylation factor(More)
The DNA-binding region of Myb consists of three imperfect tandem repeats (R1, R2, and R3). We have determined the solution structure of a specific DNA complex of the minimum DNA-binding domain (R2R3) by heteronuclear multidimensional NMR. Both R2 and R3 contain three helices, and the third helix in each is found to be a recognition helix. R2 and R3 are(More)
Dorsal and ventral aspects of the eye are distinct from the early stages of development. The developing eye cup grows dorsally, and the choroidal fissure is formed on its ventral side. Retinal axons from the dorsal and ventral retina project to the ventral and dorsal tectum, respectively. Misexpression of the Tbx5 gene induced dorsalization of the ventral(More)
The posterior parietal cortex is included in the dorsal cortical visual pathway underlying the three-dimensional (3-D) visual recognition of space and objects. The neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) respond visually to the three-dimensional objects, whereas those in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP) respond to hand movements to grasp them.(More)
c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are potently activated by a number of cellular stimuli. Small GTPases, in particular Rac, are responsible for initiating the activation of the JNK pathways. So far, the signals leading from extracellular stimuli to the activation of Rac have remained elusive. Recent studies have demonstrated that the Src homology 2 (SH2)- and(More)
By establishing a unique screening method, we have isolated yeast mutants that die only after differentiating into cells with a mating projection, and some of them are also defective in Ca2+ signaling. The mutants were classified into five complementation groups, one of which we studied extensively. This mutation defines a new gene, designated MID1, which(More)