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Based on structural comparison with other biogenic amine receptors and the histamine H2 receptor, it has been suggested that in the human histamine H1 receptor, Asp107, Thr194, and Asn198 are the residues involved in binding of histamine. We therefore used site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the roles of these three amino acid residues. Asp107 was(More)
Although it is expected that hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from human embryonic stem (ES) cells or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells will be utilized in drug toxicity testing, the actual applicability of hepatocyte-like cells in this context has not been well examined so far. To generate mature hepatocyte-like cells that would be applicable for(More)
The internal ribosome entry site (IRES) has been widely used to coexpress heterologous gene products by a message from a single promoter. However, little is known about the efficiency of IRES-dependent second gene expression in comparison with that of first gene expression. This study was undertaken to characterize the relative expression of IRES-dependent(More)
The human histamine H1 receptor gene, an intron-lacking gene, was isolated with bovine H1 receptor cDNA [Yamashita, M., Fukui, H., Sugama, K., Horio, Y., Ito, S., Mizuguchi, H., and Wada, H. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 11515-11519] used as a probe. The receptor protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence of this gene was composed of 487 amino(More)
BACKGROUND Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an anti-apoptotic protein that regulates apoptosis sensitivity in a variety of cell types. Here we evaluate the roles of Mcl-1 in chemotherapy-associated apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. In addition, our study examined whether Mcl-1 contributed to apoptosis resistance in so-called cancer stem cell (CSC)-like(More)
In studies regarding both gene therapy and gene function, transgene expression by plasmid vectors benefits from the use of transcriptional regulatory elements which permit high-level gene expression. Therefore, with respect to transgene (luciferase) expression activity both in vitro (using HeLa, HepG2, and ECV304 cells) and in vivo (mouse liver and skeletal(More)
Coordinated control of energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis requires communication between organs and tissues. We identified a neuronal pathway that participates in the cross talk between the liver and adipose tissue. By studying a mouse model, we showed that adenovirus-mediated expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-g2 in the(More)
To develop nonviral gene vectors that are sufficient for clinical application, it is necessary to understand why and to what extent nonviral vectors are inferior to viral vectors, which in general show a more efficient transfection activity. This study describes a systematic and quantitative comparison of the cellular uptake and subsequent intracellular(More)
Quantitative and mechanism-based information on differences in transfection efficiency between viral and non-viral vectors would be highly useful for improving the effectiveness of non-viral vectors. A previous quantitative comparison of intracellular trafficking between adenovirus and LipofectAMINE PLUS (LFN) revealed that the three orders of magnitude(More)
DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus kodakaraensis KOD1 (KOD DNA polymerase) is one of the most efficient thermostable PCR enzymes exhibiting higher accuracy and elongation velocity than any other commercially available DNA polymerase [M. Takagi et al. (1997) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 4504-4510]. However, even when KOD DNA polymerase was used for PCR,(More)