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The Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen (SERA) is one of the blood stage malaria vaccine candidates. The malaria genome project has revealed that SERA is a member of the SERA multigene family consisting of eight SERA homologues clustered on chromosome 2 and one SERA homologue on chromosome 9. Northern blotting and real time quantitative reverse(More)
The Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen (SERA), a malaria vaccine candidate, is processed into several fragments (P73, P47, P56, P50, and P18) at the late schizont stage prior to schizont rupture in the erythrocytic cycle of the parasite. We have established an in vitro cell-free system using a baculovirus-expressed recombinant SERA (bvSERA) that(More)
It is generally accepted that the mitochondria play central roles in energy production of most eukaryotes. In contrast, it has been thought that Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of malaria, rely mainly on cytosolic glycolysis but not mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for energy production during blood stages. However, Plasmodium spp. possesses all(More)
The serine repeat antigen gene family of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf-SERA) consists of nine gene members. By sequence similarity search, 45 genes were identified to be homologous to the Pf-SERA genes in the ongoing seven Plasmodium genome sequencing project databases for the species: P. reichenowi, P. vivax, P. knowlesi, P. yoelii, P. berghei, P. chabaudi,(More)
Malaria, which is caused by Plasmodium parasites, is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes. When gametocytes, the precursor cells of Plasmodium gametes, are transferred to a mosquito, they fertilize and proliferate, which render the mosquito infectious to the next vertebrate host. Although the fertilization of malaria parasites has been considered as a(More)
The barrier abnormality, a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG), which is linked to the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD), is a recently discovered but important factor in the pathogenesis of AD. Flaky tail (Flg(ft)) mice, essentially deficient in filaggrin, have been used to investigate the role of filaggrin on AD. However, the(More)
Melon (Cucumis melo) roots were inoculated with or without the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus caledonium under low phosphate conditions. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the secondary metabolites in butanol extracts from roots revealed that the level of one compound in noninoculated roots showed a significant increase from 30(More)
Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites is characterized by severe systemic as well as local symptoms, and associated with chronic active EBV infection and NK cell lymphocytosis. In this HEN disease, we investigated the response of PBMC to MSG extracts. PBMC were taken from three defined cases of HEN disease, three borderline cases, five individuals with simple(More)
When malaria parasites enter to mosquitoes, they fertilize and differentiate to zygotes and ookinetes. The motile ookinetes cross the midgut cells and arrive to the basement membranes where they differentiate into oocysts. The midgut epithelium is thus a barrier for ookinetes to complete their life cycle in the mosquitoes. The ookinetes develop gliding(More)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which is accompanied by marked increases in the levels of inflammatory cells, including mast cells and eosinophils as well as T cells and macrophages. To investigate the expression pattern of chemokines in AD, a house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae extracts (DfE)-induced NC/Nga AD model was(More)