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Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone. Recent genome-wide scans have mapped a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome to chromosome 3q27, where the gene encoding adiponectin is located. Here we show that decreased expression of adiponectin correlates with insulin resistance in mouse models of altered insulin sensitivity.(More)
For a preferential homing of T cells to the gut, expression of the integrin alpha4beta7 and the chemokine receptor CCR9 is essential and is induced by antigenic stimulation with dendritic cells from the gut-associated lymphoid organs. Here, we show that the vitamin A (retinol) metabolite, retinoic acid, enhances the expression of alpha4beta7 and CCR9 on T(More)
The molecular basis of CNS myelin regeneration (remyelination) is poorly understood. We generated a comprehensive transcriptional profile of the separate stages of spontaneous remyelination that follow focal demyelination in the rat CNS and found that transcripts that encode the retinoid acid receptor RXR-γ were differentially expressed during(More)
We recently isolated a Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor 5 (KLF5; also known as BTEB2 and IKLF), which is markedly induced in activated vascular smooth-muscle cells and fibroblasts. Here we describe our analysis of the in vivo function of KLF5 using heterozygous KLF5-knockout mice (Klf5(+/-)). In response to external stress, Klf5(+/-) mice(More)
The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), affects Th1 and Th2 development. The effect is partly exerted through the modulation of antigen-presenting cell functions, but it remains unclear whether RA directly exerts its effect on T cells to influence Th1/Th2 development. To clarify this problem, we used two experimental systems with isolated T cells in(More)
Nuclear accumulation of transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is an important step in TG2-dependent cell death. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for nuclear translocation of TG2 are still poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that acyclic retinoid (ACR) induced nuclear accumulation of TG2 in JHH-7 cells, a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) leading(More)
PPARgamma is a ligand-activated transcription factor and functions as a heterodimer with a retinoid X receptor (RXR). Supraphysiological activation of PPARgamma by thiazolidinediones can reduce insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, but these drugs can also cause weight gain. Quite unexpectedly, a moderate reduction of PPARgamma activity(More)
Mutations of a single residue in the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) ligand-binding pocket (LBP) generate constitutive, ligand-binding-competent mutants with structural and functional characteristics similar to those of agonist-bound wild-type RXR. Modelling of the mouse RXRalphaF318A LBP suggests that, like agonist binding, the mutation disrupts a(More)
A natural retinoid all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) regulates a variety of important cellular functions via retinoic acid receptor (RAR). ATRA has therapeutically been used against various malignancies including acute promyelocytic leukemia. Recently ATRA has also been recognized to be beneficial against atherosclerotic vascular disorders. However, its(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of schizophrenia's symptoms with typical antipsychotic drugs shows some efficacy, but the induction of extrapyramidal symptoms represents a serious handicap, which considerably limits their usefulness. Recent evidence suggests that Nur77 (nerve growth factor-induced B) and retinoids are involved in biochemical and behavioral effects of(More)