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BACKGROUND A number of epidemiologic studies of Parkinson 's disease (PD) have been conducted worldwide over the years. Although every study reported the rise in prevalence and incidence rate of PD with the increasing age, the overall estimates were different across countries. The variation in reported data may partly be contributed by case ascertainment,(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder in older people, and half of the world's older population lives in Asia. However, the epidemiology of PD in Asian countries is poorly understood. This review assembles evidence on the prevalence and incidence of PD in Asian countries and identifies gaps in our present knowledge. (More)
The tRNA(Gm18) methyltransferase (TrmH) catalyzes the 2'-O methylation of guanosine 18 (Gua18) of tRNA. We solved the crystal structure of Thermus thermophilus TrmH complexed with S-adenosyl-L-methionine at 1.85 A resolution. The catalytic domain contains a deep trefoil knot, which mutational analyses revealed to be crucial for the formation of the(More)
Transfer RNA (Gm18) methyltransferase (TrmH) catalyzes the methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to the 2'-OH group of the G18 ribose in tRNA. To identify amino acid residues responsible for the tRNA recognition, we have carried out the alanine substitution mutagenesis of the basic amino acid residues that are conserved only in TrmH enzymes(More)
Mammalian xanthine dehydrogenase can be converted to xanthine oxidase by modification of cysteine residues or by proteolysis of the enzyme polypeptide chain. Here we present evidence that the Cys(535) and Cys(992) residues of rat liver enzyme are indeed involved in the rapid conversion from the dehydrogenase to the oxidase. The purified mutants C535A and/or(More)
Transfer RNA (m(1)G37) methyltransferase (TrmD) catalyzes methyl-transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the N(1) atom of G37 in tRNA. In Escherichia coli cells, TrmD methylates tRNA species possessing a G36G37 sequence. It was previously believed that G36 was the positive determinant of TrmD recognition. In the current study, we demonstrate that TrmD from(More)
Rat heme-binding protein 23 (HBP23)/peroxiredoxin (Prx I) belongs to the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin type I family and exhibits peroxidase activity coupled with reduced thioredoxin (Trx) as an electron donor. We analyzed the dimer-oligomer interconversion of wild-type and mutant HBP23/Prx I by gel filtration and found that the C52S and C173S mutants existed mostly(More)
Foreign RNA serves as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) and is a potent immune stimulator for innate immune receptors. However, the role of single bacterial RNA species in immune activation has not been characterized in detail. We analyzed the immunostimulatory potential of transfer RNA (tRNA) from different bacteria. Interestingly, bacterial(More)
Cell-free translation systems are a powerful tool for the production of many kinds of proteins. However the production of proteins made up of hetero subunits is a major problem. In this study, we selected yeast tRNA (m(7)G46) methyltransferase (Trm8-Trm82 heterodimer) as a model protein. The enzyme catalyzes a methyl-transfer from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to(More)
Transfer RNA (Gm18) methyltransferase (TrmH (SpoU)) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to the 2'-OH of guanosine 18 in tRNA. This enzyme is a member of the SpoU family of RNA methyltransferases. Recent computational researches have shown that three amino acid sequence motifs are conserved among the SpoU members.(More)