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Recent developments in molecular biology have revealed that several oncogenes, suppressor genes and adhesion molecules are involved in the development of oesophageal cancer; however, the role of these genes is still unknown. To evaluate which molecular biological factors are related to patients' prognosis and recurrence, we checked p53, p16, p21/Waf1,(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has been reported to promote tumour radioresistance; therefore, it is recognised as an excellent target during radiation therapy. However, the inhibition of HIF-1 in unsuitable timing can suppress rather than enhance the effect of radiation therapy because its anti-angiogenic effect increases the radioresistant hypoxic(More)
Recent human behavioral studies have shown that the position of a visual target is instantly represented relative to the background (e.g., a large square) and used for evaluating the error in reaching the target. In the present study, we examined whether the same allocentric mechanism is shared by the monkey. We trained two monkeys to perform a fast and(More)
Cancer patients often suffer from local tumor recurrence after radiation therapy. Some intracellular and extracellular factors, such as activity of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), cell cycle status and oxygen availability, have been suggested to affect DNA damage responses and eventual radioresistant characteristics of cancer cells. But when, where, and(More)
Hypoxia is closely associated with the radioresistance of tumours; therefore, targeting hypoxic areas is very important for cancer therapy. The aim of this study is to establish such a targeting strategy by applying a bacterial cytosine deaminase (BCD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) gene therapy system and to examine whether the strategy enhances the efficacy of(More)
An amidase acting on (R,S)-piperazine-2-tert-butylcarboxamide was purified from Pseudomonas azotoformans IAM 1603 and characterized. The enzyme acted S-stereoselectively on (R,S)-piperazine-2-tert-butylcarboxamide to yield (S)-piperazine-2-carboxylic acid. N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of the enzyme were determined. The gene encoding the(More)
Regions of hypoxia occur in most solid tumors, and they are associated with a poor prognostic outcome. Despite the absence of detectable DNA damage, severe hypoxia (<0.1% O2) induces a DNA damage response, including the activation of p53 and subsequent induction of p53-dependent apoptosis. Factors affecting hypoxia-induced p53-dependent apoptosis are(More)
Gorlin syndrome (GS) is an autosomal dominant disorder that predisposes affected individuals to developmental defects and tumorigenesis, and caused mainly by heterozygous germline PTCH1 mutations. Despite exhaustive analysis, PTCH1 mutations are often unidentifiable in some patients; the failure to detect mutations is presumably because of mutations(More)
Previously we have presented a selective sharpening method for monochrome images. Our method is based on the simultaneous nonlinear reaction-diffusion time-evolution equipped with a nonlinear diffusion term, a reaction term and an overshooting term, and can sharpen degraded edges blurred by several causes without increasing the visibility of random noise.(More)