Hiroyuki Gatanaga

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Efavirenz (EFV) is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) in the liver. We analyzed the genotypes of CYP2B6 and their contribution to plasma EFV concentrations in 35 EFV-treated patients in International Medical Center of Japan. The mean plasma EFV concentration of patients with CYP2B6 *6/*6 (Q172H and K262R) (25.4+/-7.5 microM, +/-SD, n = 2) was(More)
The rapid and extensive spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic provides a rare opportunity to witness host-pathogen co-evolution involving humans. A focal point is the interaction between genes encoding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and those encoding HIV proteins. HLA molecules present fragments (epitopes) of HIV proteins on the surface(More)
BACKGROUND Efavirenz (EFV) is metabolized primarily by cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6), and high plasma concentrations of the drug are associated with a G-->T polymorphism at position 516 (516G-->T) of CYP2B6 and frequent central nervous system (CNS)-related side effects. Here, we tested the feasibility of genotype-based dose reduction of EFV. METHODS CYP2B6(More)
Mitochondrial toxicity is a major adverse effect of the nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) used for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and can result in life-threatening lactic acidosis. The toxicity is due to inhibition of polymerase gamma (Pol gamma), which is required for replication of mitochondrial DNA(More)
BACKGROUND The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) who do not inject drugs in Asia remains unknown. METHOD The incidence and risk factors for incident HCV infection among HIV-infected MSM at a large HIV clinic in Tokyo were elucidated. Poisson regression compared the incidence of HCV(More)
Amino acid substitutions in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag cleavage sites have been identified in HIV-1 isolated from patients with AIDS failing chemotherapy containing protease inhibitors (PIs). However, a number of highly PI-resistant HIV-1 variants lack cleavage site amino acid substitutions. In this study we identified multiple novel(More)
BACKGROUND Little information is available on the incidence of renal stones with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) use. METHODS In a single-center study, the incidence of renal stones was compared between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who commenced ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r)-containing antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (the(More)
We describe a rapid and simple novel phenotypic assay for drug susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) using a CCR5-expressing HeLa/CD4(+) cell clone 1-10 (MAGIC-5). MAGIC-5 cells produced large amounts of HIV-1 in culture supernatants, which enabled us to perform the phenotypic resistance assay. Determination of HIV-1 susceptibility(More)
We identified clinical isolates with phenotypic resistance to nevirapine (NVP) in the absence of known nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations. This resistance is caused by N348I, a mutation at the connection subdomain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT). Virologic analysis showed that N348I(More)