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In an effort to study the molecular basis of the determination processes of the mammalian germ cell lineage, we have tried to isolate a mouse gene homolog to vasa, which plays an essential role as a maternal determining factor for the formation of Drosophila germ cell precursors. By reverse transcriptase PCRs of mouse primordial germ cell cDNAs using(More)
Plant alkaloids, one of the largest groups of natural products, provide many pharmacologically active compounds. Several genes in the biosynthetic pathways for scopolamine, nicotine, and berberine have been cloned, making the metabolic engineering of these alkaloids possible. Expression of two branching-point enzymes was engineered: putrescine(More)
BACKGROUND Axitinib (AG-013736) is an oral, selective and potent inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR)-1, 2 and 3. This phase II study investigated axitinib efficacy, safety and biomarkers in Japanese patients with cytokine-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS In an open-label, multicentre(More)
The antioncogenic Chk2 kinase plays a crucial role in DNA damage-induced cell-cycle checkpoint regulation. Here we show that Chk2 associates with the oncogenic protein Wip1 (wild-type p53-inducible phosphatase 1) (PPM1D), a p53-inducible protein phosphatase. Phosphorylation of Chk2 at threonine68 (Thr68), a critical event for Chk2 activation, which is(More)
BACKGROUND Germline-specific differential DNA methylation that persists through fertilization and embryonic development is thought to be the 'imprint' distinguishing the parental alleles of imprinted genes. If such methylation is to work as the imprinting mechanism, however, it has to be reprogrammed following each passage through the germline. Previous(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of sunitinib in Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS Fifty-one Japanese patients with prior nephrectomy, 25 treatment-naive patients (first-line group) and 26 cytokine-refractory patients (pretreated group) were enrolled in this phase II trial. Patients received(More)
As a first step towards development of insect resistant rice we have introduced a truncated delta-endotoxin gene, cryIA(b) of Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) which has specific biological activity against lepidopteran insects into a japonica rice. To highly express the cryIA(b) gene in rice the coding sequence was extensively modified based on the codon usage(More)
Studies were performed on cancer detection and prevention in the high cancer risk group. To improve the screening method in the diagnosis of unspecified cancer, a modified combination assay was devised using a combination of several tumor markers and adding risk factors of malignancies obtainable from blood samples. Five tumor markers, AFP, CEA, CA 19-9,(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy and safety of everolimus in Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. METHODS A subgroup analysis of the pivotal Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of everolimus 10 mg/day in patients with disease progression after treatment with sorafenib, sunitinib or both assessed outcomes in(More)
BACKGROUND In a phase II, open-label, multicentre Japanese study, sunitinib demonstrated antitumour activity and acceptable tolerability in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients. Final survival analyses and updated results are reported. METHODS Fifty-one Japanese patients with a clear-cell component of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (25(More)