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Mammalian genomes encode genes for more than 30 phospholipase A₂s (PLA₂s) or related enzymes, which are subdivided into several classes including low-molecular-weight secreted PLA₂s (sPLA₂s), Ca²+-dependent cytosolic PLA₂s (cPLA₂s), Ca²+-independent PLA₂s (iPLA₂s), platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolases (PAF-AHs), lysosomal PLA₂s, and a recently(More)
Among the many mammalian secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzymes, PLA2G3 (group III secreted phospholipase A2) is unique in that it possesses unusual N- and C-terminal domains and in that its central sPLA2 domain is homologous to bee venom PLA2 rather than to other mammalian sPLA2s. To elucidate the in vivo actions of this atypical sPLA2, we generated(More)
Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder. The motor impairments of Parkinson's disease are caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and associated with the appearance of fibrillar aggregates of α-synuclein (α-syn) called Lewy bodies. Approximately 90% of α-syn deposited in Lewy bodies is(More)
Among more than 30 members of the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) superfamily, secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) enzymes represent the largest family, being Ca(2+)-dependent low-molecular-weight enzymes with a His-Asp catalytic dyad. Individual sPLA2s exhibit unique tissue and cellular distributions and enzymatic properties, suggesting their distinct biological roles. Recent(More)
Resolution of inflammation is an active process that is mediated in part by antiinflammatory lipid mediators. Although phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes have been implicated in the promotion of inflammation through mobilizing lipid mediators, the molecular entity of PLA2 subtypes acting upstream of antiinflammatory lipid mediators remains unknown. Herein, we(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and the appearance of fibrillar aggregates of insoluble α-synuclein (α-syn) called Lewy bodies (LBs). Approximately 90% of α-syn deposited in LBs is phosphorylated at serine 129 (Ser129). In contrast, only 4% of total α-syn is phosphorylated in normal(More)
The pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the presence of Lewy bodies (LBs). LBs are intracellular inclusions typically found in these neurons and in noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus in patients with PD. However, LBs can be found more widely in neurons of(More)
Most α-synuclein (α-syn) deposited in Lewy bodies, the pathological hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD), is phosphorylated at Ser-129. However, the physiological and pathological roles of this modification are unclear. Here we investigate the effects of Ser-129 phosphorylation on dopamine (DA) uptake in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells expressing α-syn.(More)
Sera from 42 mother-infant pairs were examined to determine the effect of passively acquired enhanced neutralizing (ENt) antibody on immunization. The ENt antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella were greater in term newborns than in their mothers, with mean ratio of 1.8:1, 1.3:1, and 1.2:1, respectively. In 21% to 25% of the children, these antibodies(More)
Although the secreted phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) family has been generally thought to participate in pathologic events such as inflammation and atherosclerosis, relatively high and constitutive expression of group X sPLA(2) (sPLA(2)-X) in restricted sites such as reproductive organs, the gastrointestinal tract, and peripheral neurons raises a question as(More)