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A critical function of tumor suppressor p53 is the induction of apoptosis in cells exposed to noxious stresses. We report a previously unidentified pro-apoptotic gene, Noxa. Expression of Noxa induction in primary mouse cells exposed to x-ray irradiation was dependent on p53. Noxa encodes a Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins;(More)
RATIONALE It has been reported that many of the behavioral and serotonergic neuronal changes observed in olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) were improved by subchronic administration of a variety of antidepressants. OBJECTIVE We examined the effects of subchronic treatment with milnacipran, a dual serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and(More)
The role of kappa opioid receptor agonists in learning and memory is controversial. In the present study, the effects of U-50,488H on scopolamine-, mecamylamine- and dizocilpine-induced learning and memory impairments in rats were investigated. Scopolamine (3.3 mumol/kg s.c.), a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, and mecamylamine (40 mumol/kg s.c.), a(More)
1. We investigated whether carbachol, a muscarinic receptor agonist, induces learning and memory impairment, and if so, dynorphin A (1-13), an endogenous kappa-opioid receptor agonist, ameliorates the impairment of learning and memory induced by carbachol, by use of a step-through type passive avoidance task. 2. Carbachol induced a dose-related dual(More)
Growing evidence indicates that the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system is central to the neurobiology and treatment of depression. Riluzole, a drug currently used to slow the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), directly affects the glutamatergic system. In this study, we investigated the effects of riluzole in olfactory bulbectomy (OBX)(More)
1. Human galanin (0.32 nmol per rat, i.c.v.), an endogenous neuropeptide, administered 30 min before acquisition or retention trials, significantly impaired the acquisition of learning and recall of memory in a step-through type passive avoidance performance. 2. The role of dynorphin A (1-13) in learning and memory is controversial. Dynorphin A (1-13) (0.5(More)
The responses of olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) rats to antidepressant treatment are similar to those of depressed patients since chronic administration of an antidepressant reverses OBX-induced behavioral and physiological changes. Previously, using several animal models, it was demonstrated that single treatment with delta-opioid receptor agonists produced(More)
With the recent appearance of SSRI and SNRI, medication options with respect to depression have broadened. However, patients displaying clear improvement with existing antidepressants still do not exceed about 60 percent of total patients. New types of therapeutic agent development are currently required. Conditions for the determination of new(More)
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