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Taxonomical classification of higher fungi remains an important challenge and can benefit from the application of molecular analysis. We propose that the ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal taxa might include a number of cryptic species because there are few morphological characteristics useful for distinguishing among these fungi. Previously, host specificity in(More)
In natural forests, hundreds of fungal species colonize plant roots. The preference or specificity for partners in these symbiotic relationships is a key to understanding how the community structures of root-associated fungi and their host plants influence each other. In an oak-dominated forest in Japan, we investigated the root-associated fungal community(More)
We describe and illustrate two Strobilomyces species, S. seminudus and S. hongoi sp. nov. These two species have been confused and treated as a single species (i.e. S. seminudus). However recent studies based on population genetics have implied that they are reproductively isolated. In the present study we found that they are phylogenetically and(More)
The kingdom Fungi is estimated to include 1.5 million or more species, playing key roles as decomposers, mutualists, and parasites in every biome on the earth. To comprehensively understand the diversity and ecology of this huge kingdom, DNA barcoding targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat has been regarded as(More)
In terrestrial ecosystems, plant roots are colonized by various clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. Focused on the root systems of an oak-dominated temperate forest in Japan, we used 454 pyrosequencing to explore how phylogenetically diverse fungi constitute an ecological community of multiple ecotypes. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units(More)
Most terrestrial plants interact with diverse clades of mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi in their roots. Through belowground plant-fungal interactions, dominant plants can benefit by interacting with host-specific mutualistic fungi and proliferate in a community based on positive plant-mutualistic fungal feedback. On the other hand, subordinate plant(More)
Using a sedimentation method, the prevalence of the nodular worm Oesophagostomum stephanostomum (Nematoda: Strongylida) in western lowland gorillas at Moukalaba-Doudou National Park (MDNP), Gabon, was determined in fecal samples collected between January 2007 and October 2011, along with their coprocultures. Concurrently, possible zoonotic Oesophagostomum(More)
Microbes are usually believed to have cosmopolitan distributions. However, for estimating the global distributions of microorganisms, discriminating among cryptic species and eliminating undersampling biases are important challenges. We used a novel approach to address these problems and infer the global distribution of a given fungal ecological guild. We(More)
Among the higher fungi, reproductively isolated cryptic species exist that are morphologically difficult to distinguish owing to a lack of taxonomically useful morphological characters. Mating tests are helpful for detecting reproductive isolation between cryptic species, but are often difficult to perform for higher fungi, especially ectomycorrhizal fungi.(More)
Plant-mycorrhizal fungal interactions are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems. While ectomycorrhizal plants and their fungi generally dominate temperate forests, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is common in the tropics. In subtropical regions, however, ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants co-occur at comparable abundances in single forests,(More)