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In terrestrial ecosystems, plant roots are colonized by various clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. Focused on the root systems of an oak-dominated temperate forest in Japan, we used 454 pyrosequencing to explore how phylogenetically diverse fungi constitute an ecological community of multiple ecotypes. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units(More)
Most terrestrial plants interact with diverse clades of mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi in their roots. Through belowground plant-fungal interactions, dominant plants can benefit by interacting with host-specific mutualistic fungi and proliferate in a community based on positive plant-mutualistic fungal feedback. On the other hand, subordinate plant(More)
Molecular imaging in neuroscience is a new research field that enables visualization of the impact of molecular events on brain structure and function in humans. While magnetic resonance-based imaging techniques can provide complex information at the level of system, positron emission tomography (PET) enables determination of the distribution and density of(More)
The kingdom Fungi is estimated to include 1.5 million or more species, playing key roles as decomposers, mutualists, and parasites in every biome on the earth. To comprehensively understand the diversity and ecology of this huge kingdom, DNA barcoding targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat has been regarded as(More)
Plant-mycorrhizal fungal interactions are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems. While ectomycorrhizal plants and their fungi generally dominate temperate forests, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is common in the tropics. In subtropical regions, however, ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants co-occur at comparable abundances in single forests,(More)
Using a sedimentation method, the prevalence of the nodular worm Oesophagostomum stephanostomum (Nematoda: Strongylida) in western lowland gorillas at Moukalaba-Doudou National Park (MDNP), Gabon, was determined in fecal samples collected between January 2007 and October 2011, along with their coprocultures. Concurrently, possible zoonotic Oesophagostomum(More)
Diverse clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi are potentially involved in competitive or facilitative interactions within host-plant roots. We investigated the potential consequences of these ecological interactions on the assembly process of root-associated fungi by examining the co-occurrence of pairs of fungi in host-plant individuals. Based on(More)
Mushroom fruiting, the reproduction of fungi, has broad implications for forest health, terrestrial biomass turnover, and global carbon cycle. However, little is known about the difference in phenology and environmental drivers of mushroom fruiting between functional guilds, e.g., ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mutualists and saprotrophs (SAP). There is a remarkable(More)
We describe and illustrate two new species of Boletellus section Boletellus, B. aurocontextus sp. nov. and B. areolatus sp. nov., which are generally assumed to be B. emodensis. In this study, we reconstructed separate molecular phylogenetic trees of section Boletellus using the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear(More)
Histamine H1 antagonists have hypnotic, appetite-promoting, and sedative effects. The affinities of various antidepressants for histamine receptors have only been partially determined in vitro and animal study. Positron emission tomography (PET) can clarify the in vivo dynamics of antidepressants at histamine receptors. We performed human PET imaging with(More)