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We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through(More)
We present an implantable flight control microsystem for a cyborg beetle (Fig. 1). The system consists of multiple inserted neural and muscular stimulators, a visual stimulator, a polyimide assembly and a microcontroller. The system is powered by two size 5 cochlear microbatteries. The insect platform is Cotinis texana, a 2 cm long, 1-2 gram Green June(More)
A photoassisted anodization process to fabricate arrays of uniform and straight macropores at selected areas of a Si wafer surface was developed. The front- and backside surfaces of n-type Si(100) wafers were coated with a thin Si(3)N(4) layer, and the frontside layer was micro-patterned using photolithography and reactive ion etching to form an array of(More)
Tiny flying robots that are part machine and part insect may one day save lives in wars and disasters T he common housefly is a marvel of aeronautical engineering. One reason the fly is a master at evading the handheld swatter is that its wings beat remarkably fast—about 200 times a second. To achieve this amazing speed, the fly makes use of complex(More)
The continuing miniaturization of digital circuits and the development of low power radio systems coupled with continuing studies into the neurophysiology and dynamics of insect flight are enabling a new class of implantable interfaces capable of controlling insects in free flight for extended periods. We provide context for these developments, review the(More)
This paper proposes a new adaptive WBT (Web Based Training) environment for collaborative learning named COALE: Collaborative and Adaptive Learning Environment. COALE is an integrated environment of collaborative learning into individual learning based WBT with Active Personalized Awareness Provider. We propose a personalized active recommendation system,(More)
We present several important advances on the flight-control microsystem for a cyborg beetle presented recently [1]. Giant beetles (Mecynorhina torquata) were employed to achieve larger payloads than the previously used Cotinis texana beetles. A new turning control method based on direct neural stimulation of the optic lobes (compound eyes) was achieved as(More)
To realize highly sensitive electrochemical immunoassays, a micro-fabricated three-dimensional (3D) electrode was fabricated and applied to enzyme immuno assay based on production of a redox species. The dimensions of the electrodes are 10 microm in width and 30 microm in height, with 20 microm spacing in between, and the 30 pairs of anode and cathode(More)
Cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells play key roles in cell-mediated cytotoxicity and can induce apoptosis in virus-infected and malignant cells by releasing cytotoxic granules. In the current study, apoptosis was induced in Jurkat cells, a human T cell line, by delivering granzyme B into the cells using BioPORTER, a cationic lipid formulation. During(More)
In this study, a biological microactuator was demonstrated by closed-loop motion control of the front leg of an insect (Mecynorrhina torquata, beetle) via electrical stimulation of the leg muscles. The three antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in the front leg enabled the actuator to have three degrees of freedom: protraction/retraction,(More)