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Little information is available for neurosteroidogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS) of lower vertebrates. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the enzymatic activity and localization of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta5-Delta4-isomerase (3betaHSD), a key steroidogenic enzyme, in the CNS of adult male zebrafish to clarify central(More)
The Sex-lethal (Sxl) protein of Drosophila melanogaster regulates alternative splicing of the transformer (tra) messenger RNA precursor by binding to the tra polypyrimidine tract during the sex-determination process. The crystal structure has now been determined at 2.6 A resolution of the complex formed between two tandemly arranged RNA-binding domains of(More)
De novo steroidogenesis from cholesterol is a conserved property of vertebrate brains, and such steroids synthesized de novo in the brain are called neurosteroids. The identification of neurosteroidogenic cells is essential to the understanding of the physiological role of neurosteroids in the brain. We have demonstrated recently that neuronal(More)
Neurosteroids are synthesized de novo in the brain and the cerebellar Purkinje cell is a major site for neurosteroid formation. We have demonstrated that the rat Purkinje cell actively produces progesterone de novo from cholesterol only during neonatal life and progesterone promotes dendritic growth, spinogenesis and synaptogenesis via its nuclear receptor(More)
Peripheral steroid hormones act on brain tissues through intracellular receptor-mediated mechanisms to regulate several important brain neuronal functions. Therefore, the brain is considered to be a target site of steroid hormones. However, it is now established that the brain itself also synthesizes steroids de novo from cholesterol. The pioneering(More)
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity at the synapses of presynaptic boutons on presumed alpha-motoneurons in the chicken ventral horn was studied histochemically at the light- and electron-microscope levels. At the light-microscope level, many dot-like AChE-active sites were observed on the soma and dendrites of presumed alpha-motoneurons. On electron(More)
Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) has recently been identified as an itch-specific neuropeptide in the spinal sensory system in mice, but there are no reports of the expression and distribution of GRP in the trigeminal sensory system in mammals. We characterized and compared GRP-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) with those in the rat(More)
To investigate overcrowding in the posterior cranial fossa as the pathogenesis of adult-type Chiari malformation, the authors studied the morphology of the brainstem and cerebellum within the posterior cranial fossa (neural structures consisting of the midbrain, pons, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata) as well as the base of the skull while taking into(More)
Sex-specific alternative processing of doublesex (dsx) precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) regulates somatic sexual differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster. Cotransfection analyses in which the dsx gene and the female-specific transformer (tra) and transformer-2 (tra-2) complementary DNAs were expressed in Drosophila Kc cells revealed that female-specific(More)
The brain is considered to be a target site of peripheral steroid hormones. In contrast to this classical concept, new findings over the past decade have established that the brain itself also synthesizes steroids de novo from cholesterol through mechanisms at least partly independent of peripheral steroidogenic glands. Such steroids synthesized de novo in(More)