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Vibrio parahaemolyticus, one of the human-pathogenic vibrios, causes three major types of clinical illness: gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia. Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) secreted by this bacterium has been considered a major virulence factor of gastroenteritis because it has biological activities, including cytotoxic and enterotoxic(More)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a bacterial pathogen, causes human gastroenteritis. A type III secretion system (T3SS2) encoded in pathogenicity island (Vp-PAI) is the main contributor to enterotoxicity and expression of Vp-PAI encoded genes is regulated by two transcriptional regulators, VtrA and VtrB. However, a host-derived inducer for the Vp-PAI genes has not(More)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a bacterial pathogen causative of food-borne gastroenteritis. Whole-genome sequencing of V. parahaemolyticus strain RIMD2210633, which exhibits Kanagawa phenomenon (KP), revealed the presence of two sets of the genes for the type III secretion system (T3SS) on chromosomes 1 and 2, T3SS1 and T3SS2, respectively. Although T3SS2 of(More)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important pathogen causing food-borne disease worldwide. An 80-kb pathogenicity island (Vp-PAI), which contains two tdh (thermostable direct hemolysin) genes and a set of genes for the type III secretion system (T3SS2), is closely related to the pathogenicity of this bacterium. However, the regulatory mechanisms of Vp-PAI's(More)
The type III secretion system (T3SS) translocon complex is composed of several associated proteins, which form a translocation channel through the host cell plasma membrane. These proteins are key molecules that are involved in the pathogenicity of many T3SS-positive bacteria, because they are necessary to deliver effector proteins into host cells. A T3SS(More)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans, is characterized by two type III secretion systems (T3SS), namely T3SS1 and T3SS2. T3SS2 is indispensable for enterotoxicity but the effector(s) involved are unknown. Here, we identify VopV as a critical effector that is required to mediate V.(More)
The pathogenesis of the diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a leading cause of seafood-associated enteritis worldwide, is dependent upon a type III secretion system, T3SS2. This apparatus enables the pathogen to inject bacterial proteins (effectors) into the cytosol of host cells and thereby modulate host processes. T3SS effector proteins(More)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative marine bacterium that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans. The virulence of V. parahaemolyticus is dependent upon a type III secretion system (T3SS2). One effector for T3SS2, VopC, is a homologue of the catalytic domain of cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF), and was recently reported to be a Rho family GTPase(More)
Among three haemolysins identified thus far in Escherichia coli, alpha-haemolysin (HlyA) is encoded on the pathogenicity islands of extraintestinal pathogenic strains, while enterohaemolysin (EhxA) is encoded on the virulence plasmids of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strains. In contrast, the gene for haemolysin E (HlyE) is located on the E. coli(More)
Clostridium perfringens is a causative agent of food-borne gastroenteritis for which C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) has been considered an essential factor. Recently, we experienced two outbreaks of food-borne gastroenteritis in which non-CPE producers of C. perfringens were strongly suspected to be the cause. Here, we report a novel enterotoxin produced(More)