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Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate and pyruvate concentrations were determined in 16 patients with hepatic encephalopathy before and/or after treatment. CSF lactate was significantly increased to 1.92 +/- 0.11 mmol/l in hepatic encephalopathy before the treatment in comparison to 1.40 +/- 0.05 mmol/l in control subjects. In 9 of 11 patients with moderate or(More)
OBJECTIVES To study the factors which influence cognitive impairment among elderly subjects living in a local community, based on both MRI and clinical findings, to further elucidate the causes of dementia, and also to help develop strategies for its prevention. METHODS Cranial MRI and other medical examinations were performed on non-demented elderly(More)
Although apoptotic cell death has been suggested to be involved in ischemic injury of the brain, the precise mechanisms of ischemic neuronal cell death are unknown. Here, we examined the biochemical feature of apoptosis (i.e. DNA fragmentation) in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (5-7 months old) subjected to photothrombotic distal middle cerebral(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Silent brain infarction (SBI) on MRI is common in elderly people, and recent studies have demonstrated that SBI increases the risk of progression to clinically apparent stroke and cognitive decline. Therefore, an early and accurate detection of SBI and a search for potential treatable risk factors may have a significant impact on(More)
Activation of Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) may have an important role in ischemic cell death by means of intracellular overload of Na(+) and Ca(2+). Recent evidence has suggested that inhibitors of NHE have protective effects on myocardial ischemia both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that FR183998, an inhibitor of NHE, reduces(More)
We reviewed the early development of various focal ischemia models in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and summarized recent reports on this topic. Among 6 focal ischemia models established in divergent substrains of SHR, distal middle cerebral artery occlusion is the most frequently used and relevant method of focal ischemia in the light of penumbra(More)
The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of silent brain lesions on cognitive function of community-dwelling elderly individuals. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and other medical examinations were performed on 350 nondemented elderly individuals (121 male and 229 female, average age 72.4 years) who resided in the rural community of Sefuri(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To analyze the effects of substrain and gender differences in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) branching patterns on infarct size, we compared infarct volumes produced by photothrombotic distal MCA occlusion using SHR/Kyushu and SHR/Izumo (Izm). METHODS Twenty-four male and 8 female(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although our previous study demonstrated that dementia of the Binswanger type may be a disconnection dementia caused by leukoaraiosis, some hypertensive patients with marked leukoaraiosis do not develop dementia. The goal of the present study is to elucidate the pathophysiology of nondemented hypertensive patients with leukoaraiosis.(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The relationship between alcohol consumption and subclinical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains uncertain. We examined the relationship between light to moderate alcohol intake and silent brain infarction (SBI), white matter lesions (WMLs), and cerebral atrophy. METHODS Cranial MRI was performed on subjects>or=40(More)