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Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate and pyruvate concentrations were determined in 16 patients with hepatic encephalopathy before and/or after treatment. CSF lactate was significantly increased to 1.92 +/- 0.11 mmol/l in hepatic encephalopathy before the treatment in comparison to 1.40 +/- 0.05 mmol/l in control subjects. In 9 of 11 patients with moderate or(More)
Although apoptotic cell death has been suggested to be involved in ischemic injury of the brain, the precise mechanisms of ischemic neuronal cell death are unknown. Here, we examined the biochemical feature of apoptosis (i.e. DNA fragmentation) in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (5-7 months old) subjected to photothrombotic distal middle cerebral(More)
OBJECTIVES To study the factors which influence cognitive impairment among elderly subjects living in a local community, based on both MRI and clinical findings, to further elucidate the causes of dementia, and also to help develop strategies for its prevention. METHODS Cranial MRI and other medical examinations were performed on non-demented elderly(More)
Activation of Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) may have an important role in ischemic cell death by means of intracellular overload of Na(+) and Ca(2+). Recent evidence has suggested that inhibitors of NHE have protective effects on myocardial ischemia both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that FR183998, an inhibitor of NHE, reduces(More)
We reviewed the early development of various focal ischemia models in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and summarized recent reports on this topic. Among 6 focal ischemia models established in divergent substrains of SHR, distal middle cerebral artery occlusion is the most frequently used and relevant method of focal ischemia in the light of penumbra(More)
The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of silent brain lesions on cognitive function of community-dwelling elderly individuals. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and other medical examinations were performed on 350 nondemented elderly individuals (121 male and 229 female, average age 72.4 years) who resided in the rural community of Sefuri(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To analyze the effects of substrain and gender differences in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) branching patterns on infarct size, we compared infarct volumes produced by photothrombotic distal MCA occlusion using SHR/Kyushu and SHR/Izumo (Izm). METHODS Twenty-four male and 8 female(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The relationship between alcohol consumption and subclinical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains uncertain. We examined the relationship between light to moderate alcohol intake and silent brain infarction (SBI), white matter lesions (WMLs), and cerebral atrophy. METHODS Cranial MRI was performed on subjects>or=40(More)
The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in mediating the ischemia-induced release of amino acids in the striatum was studied using an in vivo brain dialysis technique in the striatum of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Using HPLC combined with fluorescence detection methods, we investigated the concentrations of amino acids in the dialysates produced by(More)
1. The present work discussed the effects of substrain or genetic differences, gender, and age of the rat on infarct size produced by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). 2. In SHR/Kyushu, infarct volume was significantly larger than that of SHR/Izm, while blood pressure levels were essentially the same(More)