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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
In the neurological mutant mouse reeler, the histological organization of the neocortex develops abnormally and essentially results in an inversion of the relative positions of the cortical layers. The reeler mutation, therefore, provides an insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the cortical layers. We have generated a monoclonal(More)
Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with ferromagnetic electrodes possessing a perpendicular magnetic easy axis are of great interest as they have a potential for realizing next-generation high-density non-volatile memory and logic chips with high thermal stability and low critical current for current-induced magnetization switching. To attain perpendicular(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) mediates epidermal growth factor, insulin and Wnt signals to various downstream events such as glycogen metabolism, gene expression, proliferation and differentiation. We have isolated here a GSK-3beta-interacting protein from a rat brain cDNA library using a yeast two-hybrid method. This protein consists of 832 amino(More)
The regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) domain of Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, made a complex with full-length adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) in COS, 293, and L cells but not with truncated APC in SW480 or DLD-1 cells. The RGS domain directly interacted with the region containing the 20-amino acid repeats but not with that(More)
We tested the hypothesis that plants grown under high light intensity (HL-plants) had a large activity of cyclic electron flow around PSI (CEF-PSI) compared with plants grown under low light (LL-plants). To evaluate the activity of CEF-PSI, the relationships between photosynthesis rate, quantum yields of both PSII and PSI, and Chl fluorescence parameters(More)
We have revealed that 100-200 clusters, filled with closely packed lymphocytes, can be found throughout the length of the antimesenteric wall of the mouse small intestine. They are composed of a large B cell area, including a germinal center, and epithelia overlying the clusters contain M cells. A large fraction of B cells displays B220+ CD19+ CD23+(More)
Based on the partial nucleotide sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA), presence of unique sphingoglycolipids in cellular lipid, and the major type of ubiquinone (Q10), we propose Sphingomonas gen. nov. with the type species Sphingomonas paucimobilis (Holmes et al, 1977) comb. nov. From the homology values of deoxyribonucleic(More)
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)
Absorption of excess light energy by the photosynthetic machinery results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as H2O2. We investigated the effects in vivo of ROS to clarify the nature of the damage caused by such excess light energy to the photosynthetic machinery in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Treatments of(More)