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This study was performed to examine the putative role of high mobility group box (HMGB) protein in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Observations were made (1) in 21 patients who were septic with ALI and 15 patients with normal lung function and (2) in a mouse model 24 hours after intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The(More)
Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, from glutamate. An expression of GAD protein has been reported for brain and pancreas, but not for skin. In this study, we present evidence that GAD67 mRNA and protein are expressed in mouse skin and in human dermal fibroblasts. The(More)
A newly isolated strain, MU-2, which produces very high β-fructofuranosidase activity, was identified asAspergillus japonicus. For enzyme production by the strain, sucrose at 20% (w/v) was the best carbon source and yeast extract at 1.5 to 3% (w/v) the best nitrogen source. Total enzymatic activity and cell growth were at maximum after 48 h, at 1.57×10(4)(More)
The mineralization and biodegradation of cerebrospinal fluid shunting systems were studied using material from 25 shunts that had been implanted for between 6 days and 10 years. New unused materials were also examined for comparison. Surface changes in six systems could be observed under an operating microscope. Substantial quantities of a white deposit had(More)
Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) catalyzes histamine formation from histidine. Histamine is a bioactive amine acting as a neurotransmitter as well as a chemical mediator. Phenolic food components have been tested for their ability to inhibit recombinant human HDC. Epicatechin gallate (ECG) was found to be a potent inhibitor as it inhibited HDC activity in a(More)
Many biological motor molecules move within cells using stepsizes predictable from their structures. Myosin VI, however, has much larger and more broadly distributed stepsizes than those predicted from its short lever arms. We explain the discrepancy by monitoring Qdots and gold nanoparticles attached to the myosin-VI motor domains using high-sensitivity(More)
To realize practical orbital servicing missions in the 21" century, we have developed a new system concept for an orbital servicing vehicle named Hyper-OSV (Orbital Servicing Vehicle), which has higher speed manipulation capability and larger operation area than OSVs that were proposed in the 1990's. The main feature of Hyper-OSV (HOSV) is the separation of(More)
Deletion mutants of the carrot phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene promoter were used to survey cis-elements for their effect on expression of promoter activity by transient expression. Two putative cis-elements were required to give full activity, but a third might be the most important in regulation of the promoter by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.