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The isolation and characterization is reported of a cDNA for delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) synthetase (cAtP5CS), an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of proline, from a cDNA library prepared from a dehydrated rosette plant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Southern blot analysis suggested that only one copy of the corresponding gene (AtP5CS) is present in(More)
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid with activity in the nervous system mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors. Here, we examined the role of LPA signaling in the development of neuropathic pain by pharmacological and genetic approaches, including the use of mice lacking the LPA(1) receptor. Wild-type animals with nerve injury develop(More)
The tolerance and dependence after chronic medication with morphine are thought to be representative models for studying the plasticity, including the remodeling of neuronal networks. To test the hypothesis that changes in neuronal plasticity observed in opioid tolerance or dependence are derived from increased activity of the anti-opioid nociceptin system,(More)
An essential step in intricate visual processing is the segregation of visual signals into ON and OFF pathways by retinal bipolar cells (BCs). Glutamate released from photoreceptors modulates the photoresponse of ON BCs via metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) and G protein (Go) that regulates a cation channel. However, the cation channel has not yet(More)
With the aim of separating the domains of a bifunctional fusion protein, the ability of several lengths of helix-forming peptides to separate two weakly interacting beta-can domains was compared with that of flexible linkers or of a three alpha-helices bundle domain. We introduced helix-forming peptide linkers A(EAAAK)nA (n = 2-5) between two green(More)
We investigated the possibility that neuronal cells given a mild ischemic treatment sufficient to perturb the cellular metabolism acquired tolerance to a subsequent, and what would be lethal, ischemic stress in vivo. Cerebral ischemia was produced in the gerbils by occlusion of both common carotids for 5 min, which consistently resulted in delayed neuronal(More)
Type 2 diabetes is a complex trait with both genes and environmental factors contributing to susceptibility. Except for rare subtypes with monogenic inheritance, the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes is unknown because of the complex and heterogeneous nature of the disease. By using the NSY mouse, an inbred mouse model of type 2 diabetes, we genetically(More)
It is well known that the analgesic potency of morphine is reduced in neuropathic pain. In this study, we demonstrate that the decreased effectiveness of systemic morphine in neuropathic pain might be caused by the loss of morphine analgesia at the periphery. When given s.c. or i.t., the dose-response curves for morphine analgesia in Hargreaves thermal test(More)
Typical appearances of uterine leiomyoma at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are well established, and diagnosis is usually easy. However, cases that, are extremely difficult to differentiate from other conditions are occasionally encountered. To understand the wide spectrum of MR imaging findings, such unusual appearances can be classified into three(More)
Insulin, IGF-1 or EGF induce membrane ruffling through their respective tyrosine kinase receptors. To elucidate the molecular link between receptor activation and membrane ruffling, we microinjected phosphorylated peptides containing YMXM motifs or a mutant 85 kDa subunit of phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase (delta p85) which lacks a binding site for the(More)