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Recent results suggest that long-lasting potentiation at hippocampal synapses involves the rapid formation of clusters or puncta of presynaptic as well as postsynaptic proteins, both of which are blocked by antagonists of NMDA receptors and an inhibitor of actin polymerization. We have investigated whether the increase in puncta involves retrograde(More)
A change in the efficiency of synaptic communication between neurons is thought to underlie learning. Consistent with recent studies of such changes, we find that long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission between cultured hippocampal neurons is accompanied by an increase in the number of clusters of postsynaptic glutamate receptors containing the(More)
The time course and functional significance of the structural changes associated with long-term facilitation of Aplysia sensory to motor neuron synaptic connections in culture were examined by time-lapse confocal imaging of individual sensory neuron varicosities labeled with three different fluorescent markers: the whole-cell marker Alexa-594 and two(More)
Application of Clostridium difficile toxin B, an inhibitor of the Rho family of GTPases, at the Aplysia sensory to motor neuron synapse blocks long-term facilitation and the associated growth of new sensory neuron varicosities induced by repeated pulses of serotonin (5-HT). We have isolated cDNAs encoding Aplysia Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 and found that Rho and(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is implicated as a molecular mediator for adult neurogenesis and behavioral effects of antidepressant drugs. However, these potential roles of VEGF in the CNS have not been clarified in model animals. Here we have created transgenic mice overexpressing a short active variant of VEGF-A (VEGF120) in forebrain.(More)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the central regulator of the reproductive axis. Normal sexual maturation depends on the migration of GnRH neurons from the olfactory placode to the hypothalamus during development. Previously, we showed restricted expression of the membrane receptor adhesion-related kinase (Ark) in immortalized cell lines derived(More)
Activity-dependent re-organizations of central synapses are thought to play important roles in learning and memory. Although the precise mechanisms of how neuronal activities modify synaptic connections remain to be elucidated, the activity-induced neuronal proteins such as Homer1a may contribute to the onset of synaptic remodeling. To further understand(More)
Long-term plasticity can differ from short-term in recruiting the growth of new synaptic connections, a process that requires the participation of both the presynaptic and postsynaptic components of the synapse. How does information about synaptic plasticity spread from its site of origin to recruit the other component? The answer to this question is not(More)
Rho GTPases are key transducers of integrin/extracellular matrix and growth factor signaling. Although integrin-mediated adhesion and trophic support suppress neuronal apoptosis, the role of Rho GTPases in neuronal survival is unclear. Here, we have identified Rac as a critical pro-survival GTPase in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) and elucidated a death(More)
The number of nursing home has increased largely in Japan since 1990. The Long-term Care Insurance in 2000 has accelerated the increase of nursing homes. The care giving and cooking in nursing homes have high risk factors of muscle-skeletal diseases (MSDs). However, the working conditions have not yet been improved. Thus, the incidence of low back pain and(More)